by Ted Huntington

08/17/2009

Ted Huntington

What effect does gravity have on a beam of particles with a regularly spaced interval? For example, when a beam of regularly spaced masses (a single frequency of particles with identical mass, velocity and direction) passes by other masses, in particular a single much larger mass, how is the frequency of the beam changed? Is the beam of particles blue shifted, that is, the frequency made more, while the interval is made less, or red shifted – the frequency made less, and the interval made more – neither or both?

This simulation is easy to model using Newton’s equation for gravity. The results are very interesting in that, when a beam of regularly spaced particles with identical velocity and direction approach a large mass, the closer particles start to accelerate, increasing their velocity, which causes the beam to be red shifted, however after passing the large mass, the closest particles are pulled back causing the beam to be blue shifted after passing. It seems somehow, unintuitive to me that a beam of material particles, like electrons, or protons, etc. and some might hypothesize that even photons, or even smaller particles, would be red shifted when approaching a large mass, but blue shifted after passing by a large mass. I think that perhaps the confusion may be because, the particle velocity increases as it approaches a mass – but because of this, the space or interval between the particles in the ray is made larger, which results in the frequency of the particles in the ray, how many particles are received each second, to be made less. The distance between two particles in the beam could initially be 10 meters or 10 seconds apart, but because the force of gravity is larger on the closer first particle, the first particle speeds up more than the second, more distant particle, and the distance might grow to 100 meters or 100 seconds in between the two particles. But after passing a large mass (or cluster of masses), the exact opposite occurs: the particle closes to the mass is decelerated more than the more distant particle in front of it, two particles 10 meters or 10 seconds apart, are slowed down to be only 1 meter or 1 second apart, and so the space between is decreased, and the frequency increased. This must happen to all lines, beams or rays of material particles with regular intervals.

This effect is the result of gravitation, no matter if gravitation is defined as a force exerted from a distance, or a generalization of an inertial-only mechanical effect of cumulative particle collision, like the effect on a particle bouncing around on its way through a maze of other particles.

Clearly, gravitational effects change the frequency of particle beams, including the frequency of light. So not only does Doppler shift, the relative velocity of an object to an observer, change the frequency of some particle beam leaving some source as seen by some observer, but gravitation also has an effect on the frequency of particle beams in between source and observer.

So there is a red shifting of material particle beams as they approach a large mass, and a blue shifting after they pass a large mass.

In addition to the simple observation of the change of velocity a large mass has on a beam of material particles with regular interval, there is the effect of a change in direction of the particles in the beam too. By the nature of geometry, when points in a straight line are curved because of the gravity of a large mass, as the beam bends, various points in the beam are brought closer together to each other than when they were when moving in a straight line. This increases the force of attraction felt between the points with shortened distance.

In this kind of physical modeling, there are many variables, in fact, countless variables, for example, it is impossible to add up an infinity of masses, which may exist in the unknown volume of the universe. So in these models, the final particle interval varies and is determined by variables like: the starting distance of all the masses from each other, and from the large mass– the farther away the particles in the beam are from the large mass initially, the more time they have to accelerate towards the large mass, the initial velocity of the masses in the beam, the masses of each particle, etc. (So, whether a beam moves far beyond a large mass with a smaller or larger interval than the beam started with may vary depending on ) Theoretically, it seems logical that, the interval of a beam of material particles with regular interval should only decelerate away from some large mass, exactly as much as it accelerated towards that large mass, so at some very large distance, the regular interval of the beam is restored, this ignores the effects of other large masses on the beam. (However, as the particles in a beam are accelerated to a large mass, the distance between each other increases, )

If the conservation of matter and conservation of motion, in addition to the theory of a universe of no beginning and no end either in space (including scale) or time, is true, then particle beams have no origin, but given some known initial interval which results from a natural phenomenon, humans need to recognize, not only a Doppler shift because of the relative velocity of source and observer in a material particle beam with regular interval, but in addition, the effect of gravitation on the frequency of the material particle beam should be calculated.

This movie shows a beam of points with mass 1kg, separated by 100 meters, and initial velocity of 1m/s, interacting with a mass of 1 billion kg at relative rest to masses in the beam. Each frame reflects 1 second of time. The data records the distance between each mass in the beam at each frame. The last distance value given is the distance between the last point and the large mass.

data file:

gravity_affects_interval_002.txt