TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATIONIMAGES

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe
that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.

MORE INFO
[1]
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of
light.3 Light particles are the base
unit of all matter from the tiniest
particles to the largest galaxies.4 In
this sense light particles are the most
basic atoms.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted
Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end.
The same light particles that have
always been, continue to move in the
space that has always been.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be
created or destroyed. Matter can never
be converted into motion, and motion
can never be converted into matter.3

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with
each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets,
stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we
see are only a tiny part of the
universe. We will never see most of the
universe because no light particles
from there can ever reach us.3

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl
Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980). (estimate of how many galaxies)
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe.
Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less
density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form
atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which
exist as gas clouds (like the
Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula).
These gas clouds, called nebulae
continue to accumulate trapped light
particles. At points of high density
planets and stars form and the cloud is
eventually dense enough to become a
galaxy of stars. The stars emit light
particles back out to the rest of the
universe, where the light again becomes
trapped and forms new clouds. Around
each star are many planets and pieces
of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects
evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more
of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant
emitting of light particles (decay).
Like bacteria, these living objects
grow in number, with the most
successful organisms occupying and
moving around many stars. These
advanced organisms then move the groups
of stars they control, as a globular
cluster, away from the plane of the
spiral galaxy. As time continues, all
of the stars of a galaxy are occupied
by living objects who have organized
their stars into globular clusters, and
these globular clusters together, form
a globular galaxy. The globular galaxy
may then exist for a long time living
off the matter in stars, in addition to
matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped
into volumes of space that grow in
density first forming atoms, then gas
clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy,
and finally a globular galaxy.3

Stars at our scale may be light
particles at a much larger scale, just
as light particles at our scale may be
stars at a much smaller scale. This
system may go on infinitely in both
larger and smaller scale.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg


[2] LDN 1622: Dark Nebula in
Orion Data: Digitized Sky Survey
(POSS-II), Color Composite: Noel
Carboni Explanation: The silhouette
of an intriguing dark nebula inhabits
this cosmic scene, based on images from
the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey.
Lynds' Dark Nebula (LDN) 1622 appears
against a faint background of glowing
hydrogen gas only easily seen in long
telescopic exposures of the region. LDN
1622 lies near the plane of our Milky
Way Galaxy, close on the sky to
Barnard's Loop - a large cloud
surrounding the rich complex of
emission nebulae found in the Belt and
Sword of Orion. But the obscuring dust
of LDN 1622 is thought to be much
closer than Orion's more famous
nebulae, perhaps only 500 light-years
away. At that distance, this 1 degree
wide field of view would span less than
10 light-years. PD
source: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/
0705/ldn1622_carboni.jpg

930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely
to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken
observation, for one reason because
spectrum size changes the position of
spectral lines1 , and because the
distance of a light source changes the
position, but not the frequency of
spectral lines2 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent
Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol.
83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.ed
u//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

2. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line
position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/pa
per_Bragg.htm

 
[1] Image of a spectral line shift from
a close and distant fluorescent
lamp. GNU
source: Ted Huntington


[2] The simple trigonometry that shows
that two light sources at different
distances cannot achieve the same angle
at the same location on a horizontal
diffraction grating. GNU
source: Ted Huntington


LIFE
165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to
form.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description This image is
mosaic of multiple shots on
large-format film. It comprises all 360
degrees of the galaxy from our vantage.
Photography was done in Ft. Davis,
Texas for the Northern hemisphere shots
and from Broken Hill, New South Wales,
Australia, for the southern portions.
Note the dust lanes, which obscure our
view of some features beyond them.
Infrared imaging reaches into these
regions, and radio astronomy can look
all the way through with less detail.
The very center, however, shows a
window to the farther side. In the
center, stars are mostly very old and
this causes the more yellow color. The
final file is 1.5GB, and resolves
details of less than one arcminute.
Faintest stars are magnitude 11. There
are 21 pixels of horizontal overlap at
the ends, with the right end slightly
brighter than the corresponding pixels
on the left. Date Source
http://www.digitalskyllc.com (The
image was uploaded to en.wiki at 17:16,
21 September 2006 by Twtunes. Author
Digital Sky LLC CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0a/Milkyway_pan1.jpg


[2] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way
Galaxy forms.3

Atoms may form near the surface of
planets and stars.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted
Huntington.
 
[1] Description English: M8 Lagoon
Nebula in Sagittarius Date 26 June
2009 Source Own
work Author Hewholooks CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/M8HunterWilson.jpg


[2] NGC 7023: The Iris Nebula Credit
& Copyright: Daniel López,
IAC Explanation: Like delicate cosmic
petals, these clouds of interstellar
dust and gas have blossomed 1,300
light-years away in the fertile star
fields of the constellation Cepheus.
Sometimes called the Iris Nebula and
dutifully cataloged as NGC 7023, this
is not the only nebula in the sky to
evoke the imagery of flowers. Still,
this beautiful digital image shows off
the Iris Nebula's range of colors and
symmetries in impressive detail. Within
the Iris, dusty nebular material
surrounds a hot, young star. The
dominant color of the brighter
reflection nebula is blue,
characteristic of dust grains
reflecting starlight. Central filaments
of the dusty clouds glow with a faint
reddish photoluminesence as some dust
grains effectively convert the star's
invisible ultraviolet radiation to
visible red light. Infrared
observations indicate that this nebula
may contain complex carbon molecules
known as PAHs. As shown here, the
bright blue portion of the Iris Nebula
is about six light-years across. PD
source: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/
1011/IRIS_IAC80_DLopez900c.jpg

22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way
Galaxy reach another star using a
ship.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] close up
of: Description English: M8 Lagoon
Nebula in Sagittarius Date 26 June
2009 Source Own
work Author Hewholooks CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/M8HunterWilson.jpg


[2] Description The photograph,
taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope,
captures a small region within M17, a
hotbed of star formation. M17, also
known as the Omega or Swan Nebula, is
located about 5500 light-years away in
the constellation Sagittarius. The
wave-like patterns of gas have been
sculpted and illuminated by a torrent
of ultraviolet radiation from young,
massive stars, which lie outside the
picture to the upper left. The glow of
these patterns accentuates the
three-dimensional structure of the
gases. The ultraviolet radiation is
carving and heating the surfaces of
cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed
surfaces glow orange and red in this
photograph. The intense heat and
pressure cause some material to stream
away from those surfaces, creating the
glowing veil of even hotter greenish
gas that masks background structures.
The pressure on the tips of the waves
may trigger new star formation within
them. The image, roughly 3
light-years across, was taken May
29-30, 1999, with the Wide Field
Planetary Camera 2. The colors in the
image represent various gases. Red
represents sulfur; green, hydrogen; and
blue, oxygen. Date 24 April
2003 Source
http://spacetelescope.org/images/html/he
ic0305a.html (direct link)
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive
/releases/2003/13/image/a/ Author
NASA, ESA and J. Hester (ASU) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/72/Omega_Nebula.jpg

10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of
100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description The globular
cluster Omega Centauri — with as many
as ten million stars — is seen in all
its splendour in this image captured
with the WFI camera from ESO's La Silla
Observatory. The image shows only the
central part of the cluster — about
the size of the full moon on the sky
(half a degree). North is up, East is
to the left. This colour image is a
composite of B, V and I filtered
images. Note that because WFI is
equipped with a mosaic detector, there
are two small gaps in the image which
were filled with lower quality data
from the Digitized Sky Survey. Date
2008 Source
http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/
press-rel/pr-2008/phot-44-08.html Autho
r ESO CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Omega_Centauri_
by_ESO.jpg/638px-Omega_Centauri_by_ESO.j
pg


[2] Description This image is
mosaic of multiple shots on
large-format film. It comprises all 360
degrees of the galaxy from our vantage.
Photography was done in Ft. Davis,
Texas for the Northern hemisphere shots
and from Broken Hill, New South Wales,
Australia, for the southern portions.
Note the dust lanes, which obscure our
view of some features beyond them.
Infrared imaging reaches into these
regions, and radio astronomy can look
all the way through with less detail.
The very center, however, shows a
window to the farther side. In the
center, stars are mostly very old and
this causes the more yellow color. The
final file is 1.5GB, and resolves
details of less than one arcminute.
Faintest stars are magnitude 11. There
are 21 pixels of horizontal overlap at
the ends, with the right end slightly
brighter than the corresponding pixels
on the left. Date Source
http://www.digitalskyllc.com (The
image was uploaded to en.wiki at 17:16,
21 September 2006 by Twtunes. Author
Digital Sky LLC CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0a/Milkyway_pan1.jpg

5,500,000,000 YBN
4
16) The star Earth orbits forms.3
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington
4. ^ Ted
Huntington, guess

MORE INFO
[1]
http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/208/mar
1/nucleo.html
(with image of onion
skin layers)
[2] another person declares star
inside to be similar to planets: iron,
oxygen, nickel, etc. do not support
standard solar
model. star_inside_iron.pdf
 
[1] Description English: The Sun
photographed by the Atmospheric Imaging
Assembly (AIA 304) of NASA's Solar
Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This is
a false color image of the sun observed
in the extreme ultraviolet region of
the spectrum. For example,similar
image Français : Le soleil,
photographié depuis le Solar Dynamics
Observatory de la NASA. Date
2010-08-19T00:32:21Z (ISO
8601) Source NASA/SDO
(AIA). Author NASA/SDO (AIA). PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/The_Sun_by_the_
Atmospheric_Imaging_Assembly_of_NASAs_So
lar_Dynamics_Observatory_-_20100819.jpg/
628px-The_Sun_by_the_Atmospheric_Imaging
_Assembly_of_NASAs_Solar_Dynamics_Observ
atory_-_20100819.jpg


[2] Summary Description The star
formation region N11B in the LMC taken
by WFPC2 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space
Telescope. Date Source
http://www.spacetelescope.org/image
s/html/heic0411a.html Author
NASA/ESA and the Hubble Heritage
Team
(AURA/STScI)/HEIC Permission (Reusing
this file) ESA Public Domain, as
per
http://www.spacetelescope.org/copyright.
html PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6c/Heic0411a.jpg

5,500,000,000 YBN
4
17) Planets form around our star. Like
the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter
atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded
by gas.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted
Huntington.
 
[1] an 19, 2005 � For the past five
days, forecasters at the NOAA Space
Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.,
have observed all types of space
weather: radio blackouts, solar
radiation storms and geomagnetic
storms. Currently, space weather
forecasters are observing a moderate
geomagnetic storm (G-2 on the NOAA
Space Weather Scales) and a minor (S-1)
solar radiation storm. Earlier
Wednesday an X-class flare produced a
strong (R-3) radio blackout. (Click
image for larger view of the sun taken
on Jan. 19, 2005, at 2:19 p.m. EST.
Click here for high resolution version,
which is a large file. Please credit
European Space Agency-NASA.) PD
source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/sto
ries2005/images/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg


[2] This artist’s impression shows
the disk of gas and cosmic dust around
the young star HD 142527. Astronomers
using the Atacama Large
Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)
telescope have seen vast streams of gas
flowing across the gap in the disc
UNKNOWN
source: http://l2.yimg.com/bt/api/res/1.
2/kB0xEBWbOe3fUGcRF7Y3RA--/YXBwaWQ9eW5ld
3M7Zmk9aW5zZXQ7aD00MDg7cT03OTt3PTU3NQ--/
http://media.zenfs.com/en_US/News/SPACE.
com/Never-Before-Seen_Stage_of_Planet_Bi
rth-893372caafae611ec5e71458c2f79fb8

4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.2
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Image of moon superimposed on
Venus PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dd/Full_Moon_Luc_Viatour
.jpg


[2] an 19, 2005 � For the past five
days, forecasters at the NOAA Space
Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.,
have observed all types of space
weather: radio blackouts, solar
radiation storms and geomagnetic
storms. Currently, space weather
forecasters are observing a moderate
geomagnetic storm (G-2 on the NOAA
Space Weather Scales) and a minor (S-1)
solar radiation storm. Earlier
Wednesday an X-class flare produced a
strong (R-3) radio blackout. (Click
image for larger view of the sun taken
on Jan. 19, 2005, at 2:19 p.m. EST.
Click here for high resolution version,
which is a large file. Please credit
European Space Agency-NASA.) PD
source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/sto
ries2005/images/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg

4,600,000,000 YBN
4 5
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid
rock turns into a solid thin crust.
Water condenses and falls to the
surface, filling the lowest parts of
the land to make the first Earth
oceans, lakes, and rivers.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ part about rain and streams going
to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_
htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm

2. ^ part about rain and streams going
to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_
htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm

3. ^ part about rain and streams going
to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_
htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm

4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] USGS Photo by Tim Orr Pahoehoe
lava breaks out of the crust along a
flow margin PD
source: http://www.nps.gov/havo/parkmgmt
/upload/havo_manage_usgs_20080304_tro381
7_x800.jpg


[2] English: Ultraviolet image of
Venus' clouds as seen by the Pioneer
Venus Orbiter (February 26, 1979). The
immense C- or Y-shaped features which
are visible only in these wavelengths
are individually short lived, but
reform often enough to be considered a
permanent feature of Venus' clouds. The
mechanism by which Venus' clouds absorb
ultraviolet is not well understood. PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Venuspioneeruv.
jpg/953px-Venuspioneeruv.jpg

4,600,000,000 YBN
3
50) Start of the "Precambrian". The
Hadean {HA DEen1 } Eon.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03
Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time

2. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

3. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time",
2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/
pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

4,571,000,000 YBN
3 4
31) Oldest meteorite.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/fu
ll/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&s
earchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

2. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7830
48.stm

3. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/fu
ll/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&s
earchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2
(4.7 +- .2 billion
years)
4. ^ sci has 4.7 +- .2 by where did
4.571 come from?
 
[1] The ''Zag'' meteorite fell to Earth
in 1988 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/t
ech/783048.stm

4,530,000,000 YBN
33) Oldest moon rock.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/
atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg

http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/
nojs/wl.br.1.html
 
[1]
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/
atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/
nojs/wl.br.1.html
source:

4,404,000,000 YBN
34) Oldest "terrestrial" zircon;
evidence that the crust and liquid
water are on the surface of Earth.1

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^
http://www.nature.com/nature/links/01011
1/010111-1.html

 
[1]
http://www.geology.wisc.edu/zircon/Earli
est%20Piece/Images/8.jpg
source:

4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth,
like amino acids, phosphates, and
sugars, the components of living
objects.3

The initial building blocks of living
objects are easily formed, but
assembling them into longer-chain
molecules, or polymers, is more
difficult.4

Possibly all proteins, carbohydrates
and lipids are strictly the products of
living objects.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Donald
Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p150.
5. ^ Ted
Huntington.
 
[1] The two optical isomers of alanine,
D-Alanine and
L-Alanine D-glucose BOTH PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/65/D%2BL-Alanine.gif
and http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped
ia/commons/thumb/5/5a/D-glucose-chain-3D
-balls.png/640px-D-glucose-chain-3D-ball
s.png

4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA
molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Ribonucleic acid (English
pronunciation:
/raɪbɵ.njuːˌkleɪ.ɨk ˈæsɪd/),
or RNA, is one of the three major
macromolecules (along with DNA and
proteins) that are essential for all
known forms of life. UNKNOWN
source: http://dna-rna.net/wp-content/up
loads/2011/07/rna.jpg

4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth.
Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA),
and link amino acids into proteins
using other RNA molecules ("messenger"
or mRNA), as a template.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description English:
Illustration of tRNA building peptide
chain Date 1 March 2009 Source
Own work Author
Boumphreyfr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Peptide_syn.png


[2] Source : ''Role of the
Ribosome'' University of Texas Medical
Branch UNKNOWN
source: http://ead.univ-angers.fr/~jaspa
rd/Page2/COURS/7RelStructFonction/2Bioch
imie/1SyntheseProteines/3Figures/4Organi
tes/2Ribosomes/6Polysome.gif

4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This
protein is called an RNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS1 }.

For the first time, a nucleic acid
functions both as a template for
building proteins (with the help of
tRNA molecules) and also as a template
for building other nucleic acid
molecules.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/P
olymerase>.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Schuppli, Daniel et al.
“Altered 3′-terminal RNA Structure
in Phage Qβ Adapted to Host
Factor-less Escherichia Coli.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 94.19 (1997): 10239 –10242.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/1
9/10239.abstract

 
[1] RNA is a versatile molecule. In its
most familiar role, RNA acts as an
intermediary, carrying genetic
information from the DNA to the
machinery of protein synthesis. RNA
also plays more active roles,
performing many of the catalytic and
recognition functions normally reserved
for proteins. In fact, most of the RNA
in cells is found in ribosomes--our
protein-synthesizing machines--and the
transfer RNA molecules used to add each
new amino acid to growing proteins. In
addition, countless small RNA molecules
are involved in regulating, processing
and disposing of the constant traffic
of messenger RNA. The enzyme RNA
polymerase carries the weighty
responsibility of creating all of these
different RNA molecules. The RNA
Factory RNA polymerase is a huge
factory with many moving parts. The one
shown here, from PDB entry 1i6h, is
from yeast cells. It is composed of a
dozen different proteins. Together,
they form a machine that surrounds DNA
strands, unwinds them, and builds an
RNA strand based on the information
held inside the DNA. Once the enzyme
gets started, RNA polymerase marches
confidently along the DNA copying RNA
strands thousands of nucleotides
long. Accuracy As you might expect,
RNA polymerase needs to be accurate in
its copying of genetic information. To
improve its accuracy, it performs a
simple proofreading step as it builds
an RNA strand. The active site is
designed to be able to remove
nucleotides as well as add them to the
growing strand. The enzyme tends to
hover around mismatched nucleotides
longer than properly added ones, giving
the enzyme time to remove them. This
process is somewhat wasteful, since
proper nucleotides are also
occasionally removed, but this is a
small price to pay for creating better
RNA transcripts. Overall, RNA
polymerase makes an error about once in
10,000 nucleotides added, or about once
per RNA strand created. Poisoning
Polymerase Since RNA polymerase is
absolutely essential for the life of
the cell, it is a sensitive target for
poisons and toxins. The most powerful
of these poisons is alpha-amanitin, a
small circular peptide created by the
death cap mushroom. Eating even one of
these mushrooms will lead to coma and
death in a manner of days, as the
poison attacks RNA polymerase
throughout the body. Surprisingly, it
binds on the back side of RNA
polymerase, away from the active site
and away from the binding site for the
DNA and RNA. It does not physically
block the active site, like most
inhibitors, but instead jams the
mechanism of the enzyme. RNA polymerase
is a highly mobile enzyme, that flexes
and changes shape as it performs the
sequential steps of binding to DNA,
unwinding it, and then building the RNA
strand. As seen in PDB entry 1k83, the
poison binds between two subunits of
the protein, gluing them together and
blocking these essential motions. PD
source: http://www.pdb.org/pdb/education
_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/images
/1i6h-composite.gif


[2] [t Notice that many RNA molecules
are being produced all in sequence,
with each RNA molecule getting longer
as each protein reaches the end of the
DNA molecule.] Micrograph of gene
transcription of ribosomal RNA
illustrating the growing primary
transcripts. ''Begin'' indicates the 5'
end of the coding strand of DNA, where
new RNA synthesis begins; ''end''
indicates the 3' end, where the primary
transcripts are almost
complete. This is an alternate
version of
Image:RibosomaleTranskriptionsEinheit.jp
g, original author identified as Dr.
Hans-Heinrich Trepte, labeled in
German. This version with English
labels is from en:Image:Transcription
label fromcommons.jpg, by
en:UserOpabinia regalis, licensed under
GFDL. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/43/Transcription_label_e
n.jpg

4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. First
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a
protocell, providing a platform for
more efficient protein production. A
single RNA may contain all the
instructions needed to make more
ribosomes.

Ribosomes are the cellular organelles
that carry out protein synthesis,
through a process called translation.1


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ribosome." Genetics. The Gale
Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov.
2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
 
[1] Description English:
Illustration of tRNA building peptide
chain Date 1 March 2009 Source
Own work Author
Boumphreyfr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Peptide_syn.png


[2] Source : ''Role of the
Ribosome'' University of Texas Medical
Branch UNKNOWN
source: http://ead.univ-angers.fr/~jaspa
rd/Page2/COURS/7RelStructFonction/2Bioch
imie/1SyntheseProteines/3Figures/4Organi
tes/2Ribosomes/6Polysome.gif

4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows DNA to be assembled from RNA.2

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB
(March 1992). "Ribonucleotide
reductase: regulation, regulation,
regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17
(3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID
1412696.
2. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB
(March 1992). "Ribonucleotide
reductase: regulation, regulation,
regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17
(3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID
1412696.
 
[1] Description Crystallographic
structure of the ribonucleotide
reductase protein R1E from Salmonella
typhimurium. The protein is rainbow
colored (N-terminus = blue, C-terminus
= red) while deoxyadenosine
triphosphate is show as sticks and a
complexed magnesium ion as a grey
sphere.[1] ↑ PDB 1PEU; Uppsten M,
Färnegårdh M, Jordan A, Eliasson R,
Eklund H, Uhlin U (June 2003).
''Structure of the large subunit of
class Ib ribonucleotide reductase from
Salmonella typhimurium and its
complexes with allosteric effectors''.
J. Mol. Biol. 330 (1): 87–97. PMID
12818204. Date 28 February
2008 Source Own
work Author Boghog2 PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/1PEU_R1E.png/10
24px-1PEU_R1E.png


[2] Description English: The
reaction mechanism of ribonucleotide
reductase Date 14 January 2006
(original upload
date) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by
User:Michał Sobkowski using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was BorisTM at
en.wikipedia PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2c/RNR_reaction.png

4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules,
a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS2 }.3

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The
Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymer
ase

2. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/P
olymerase>.
3. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The
Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymer
ase

 
[1] A look at DNA replication, with the
inset showing a larger and general
view. ''Pol'' stands for polymerase, a
key enzyme. Note how each enzyme works
in a 'biochemical team' to complete the
process efficiently COPYRIGHTED
source: http://genmed.yolasite.com/resou
rces/DNA20replication.jpg


[2] Description Diagram of DNA
polymerase extending a DNA strand and
proof-reading. Date Source Own
work Author Madprime GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6f/DNA_polymerase.svg

4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription. A protein
assembles RNA from DNA.

 
[1] Transcription: DNA-> RNA In E. coli
it is possible to see the strands of
RNA transcripts under the electron
microscope. Relate the image seen under
an electron microscope with the drawing
in your book in Figure 13-3. Why do you
not see any protein strands coming from
the mRNA in the electron microscope
image? UNKNOWN
source: http://www.utexas.edu/courses/zo
o325/13-4.gif


[2] RNA is a versatile molecule. In
its most familiar role, RNA acts as an
intermediary, carrying genetic
information from the DNA to the
machinery of protein synthesis. RNA
also plays more active roles,
performing many of the catalytic and
recognition functions normally reserved
for proteins. In fact, most of the RNA
in cells is found in ribosomes--our
protein-synthesizing machines--and the
transfer RNA molecules used to add each
new amino acid to growing proteins. In
addition, countless small RNA molecules
are involved in regulating, processing
and disposing of the constant traffic
of messenger RNA. The enzyme RNA
polymerase carries the weighty
responsibility of creating all of these
different RNA molecules. The RNA
Factory RNA polymerase is a huge
factory with many moving parts. The one
shown here, from PDB entry 1i6h, is
from yeast cells. It is composed of a
dozen different proteins. Together,
they form a machine that surrounds DNA
strands, unwinds them, and builds an
RNA strand based on the information
held inside the DNA. Once the enzyme
gets started, RNA polymerase marches
confidently along the DNA copying RNA
strands thousands of nucleotides
long. Accuracy As you might expect,
RNA polymerase needs to be accurate in
its copying of genetic information. To
improve its accuracy, it performs a
simple proofreading step as it builds
an RNA strand. The active site is
designed to be able to remove
nucleotides as well as add them to the
growing strand. The enzyme tends to
hover around mismatched nucleotides
longer than properly added ones, giving
the enzyme time to remove them. This
process is somewhat wasteful, since
proper nucleotides are also
occasionally removed, but this is a
small price to pay for creating better
RNA transcripts. Overall, RNA
polymerase makes an error about once in
10,000 nucleotides added, or about once
per RNA strand created. Poisoning
Polymerase Since RNA polymerase is
absolutely essential for the life of
the cell, it is a sensitive target for
poisons and toxins. The most powerful
of these poisons is alpha-amanitin, a
small circular peptide created by the
death cap mushroom. Eating even one of
these mushrooms will lead to coma and
death in a manner of days, as the
poison attacks RNA polymerase
throughout the body. Surprisingly, it
binds on the back side of RNA
polymerase, away from the active site
and away from the binding site for the
DNA and RNA. It does not physically
block the active site, like most
inhibitors, but instead jams the
mechanism of the enzyme. RNA polymerase
is a highly mobile enzyme, that flexes
and changes shape as it performs the
sequential steps of binding to DNA,
unwinding it, and then building the RNA
strand. As seen in PDB entry 1k83, the
poison binds between two subunits of
the protein, gluing them together and
blocking these essential motions. PD
source: http://www.pdb.org/pdb/education
_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/images
/1i6h-composite.gif

4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth (a
bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a
membrane made of proteins. The first
cytoplasm.4

This cell may form in either fresh or
salt water, near the sunlit water
surface or near underwater volcanoes on
the ocean floor.5

DNA protected by cytoplasm is more
likely to survive and be copied.6

Start of binary cell division.7

This cell structure forms the basis of
all future cells of every living object
on Earth.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Prothero,
"Evolution: What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
4. ^ Ted
Huntington.
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p145-154.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Deutsch: Bild über den Reitenden
Urzwerg English: Image of Nanoarchaeum
equitans Date 2005-09-10 (original
upload date) Source Originally
from de.wikipedia; description page
is/was here. Author Original
uploader was Eber-Jimmy at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) This image is in the
public domain due to its
age. Licensing According to this
article, ''Es wurde von dem
Mikrobiologen Karl O. Stetter entdeckt.
Bildrechte: Public domain.'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/Urzwerg.jpg


[2] Hydrogenobacter thermophilus
(strain TK-6) is an obligately
chemolithoautotrophic, extremely (and
strictly) thermophilic
hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium whose
optimal growth temperature is around 70
to 75°C and was isolated from hot
springs. UNKNOWN
source: http://standardsingenomics.org/i
ndex.php/sigen/article/viewFile/146/534/
4368

4,350,000,000 YBN
6
183) Cells make the first lipids on
Earth; (fats, oils, waxes4 ).5

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ find biomarker evidence
2. ^ "lipid." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ "lipid." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Figure1: Lipid accumulation in
differentiating 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte
cell line (days in culture) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.emsdiasum.com/microsc
opy/products/sem/wet/images/lipid_accumu
lation.jpg


[2] Lipid Structures under the
microscope. Image by Alison North, The
Rockefeller University. UNKNOWN
source: http://selections.rockefeller.ed
u/cms/images/stories/2010/may/lipid.gif

4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves
around the cell.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p77. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p77.


[2] Gram negative cell
wall http://www.arches.uga.edu/~kristen
c/cellwall.html COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.arches.uga.edu/~krist
enc/cellwall.html

4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons allow selective protein
assembly.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/Te
rmPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

2. ^
http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gen
e-regulation.html#table

3. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/Te
rmPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

4. ^
http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gen
e-regulation.html#table

 
[1] Figure 6 from: Jacob, F. & Monod,
J. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the
synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3,
318–356 (1961)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_
ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B&_user
=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_alid=17
23143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&
_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi
=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&
_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVe
rsion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c7c5bee
4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a {Jacob_F
rancois_19601228.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B
&_user=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_a
lid=1723143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=s
earch&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_ite
m&_cdi=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&v
iew=c&_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&
_urlVersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c
7c5bee4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a


[2] Figure 3 from: Jacob, F. & Monod,
J. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the
synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3,
318–356 (1961)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_
ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B&_user
=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_alid=17
23143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&
_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi
=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&
_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVe
rsion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c7c5bee
4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a {Jacob_F
rancois_19601228.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B
&_user=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_a
lid=1723143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=s
earch&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_ite
m&_cdi=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&v
iew=c&_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&
_urlVersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c
7c5bee4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a

4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion. Proteins
in the cell membrane allow only certain
molecules to enter the cell.1

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology",
2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=
CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101

 
[1] Figure 7.15 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al., ''Biology'', 8th Edition, 2008,
P135. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P135.


[2] Figure 7.18 from: Campbell,
Reece, et al., ''Biology'', 8th
Edition, 2008, P137. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P137.

4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis
evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can
make ATP from glucose.2

ATP is the molecule that drives most
cellular work.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
2. ^
Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et
al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
 
[1] Description English: Glycolysis
pathway overview. Date 3
September 2009 Source Own
work Author
WYassineMrabetTalk✉ Inkscape
Logo.svg This vector image was
created with
Inkscape. Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL license (see below). GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Glycolysis.svg/
1024px-Glycolysis.svg.png


[2] Figure 9.6 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al, ''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p166. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p166.

4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can
make lactic acid.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2
stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+
oldest&hl=en

2. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2
stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+
oldest&hl=en

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p178. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p178.


[2] IUPAC
name[hide] 2-Hydroxypropanoic
acid Other names[hide] Milk
acid Description de: Struktur
von Milchsäure; en: Structure of
lactic acid Date 12 February
2007 Source Own work Author
NEUROtiker Permission (Reusing
this file) Own work, all rights
released (Public domain) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/59/Lactic-acid-3D-balls.
pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
/commons/thumb/d/d3/Lactic-acid-skeletal
.svg/1000px-Lactic-acid-skeletal.svg.png

4,325,000,000 YBN
213) Fermentation of ethanol evolves.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^
Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162-184.
 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p178. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p178.


[2] Ethanol Full structural
formula, Ball and Stick Model, and
Space-Filling Model of Ethanol PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/37/Ethanol-2D-flat.pnght
tp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
ons/b/b0/Ethanol-3D-balls.pnghttp://uplo
ad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/
Ethanol-3D-vdW.png

4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins
transport molecules into and out of the
cytoplasm.1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotuto
rials/eustruct/cmeu.html

2. ^ "active transport." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-tran
sport

3. ^ "active transport." The Oxford
Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007.
Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-tran
sport

 
[1] Figure 7.18 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al., ''Biology'', 8th Edition, 2008,
P137. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P137.


[2] Figure 7.15 from: Campbell,
Reece, et al., ''Biology'', 8th
Edition, 2008, P135. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P135.

4,200,000,000 YBN
3 4
292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves.2
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ conjugation in protists, flagella
in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^
conjugation in protists, flagella in
eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa
and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life",
2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October
2006). "From The Origin of Species to
the origin of bacterial flagella".
Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4 (10):
784–90. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. PMID
16953248. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro
/journal/v4/n10/full/nrmicro1493.html

[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[4] David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
[5] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L.
TATUM, "Gene Recombination in
Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558
(19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0
Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html

[6] "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>
 
[1] Aquifex pyrophilus (platinum
shadowed). © K.O. Stetter & Reinhard
Rachel, University of Regensburg.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/aquifex/aquifex.ht
m


[2] Description English: A
Gram-negative bacterial flagellum. A
flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long,
slender projection from the cell body,
whose function is to propel a
unicellular or small multicellular
organism. The depicted type of
flagellum is found in bacteria such as
E. coli and Salmonella, and rotates
like a propeller when the bacterium
swims. The bacterial movement can be
divided in 2 kinds: run, resulting from
a counterclockwise rotation of the
flagellum, and tumbling, from a
clockwise rotation of the
flagellum. Français : Flagelle de
bactérie Gram-négative. Le flagelle
est une projection longue et fine hors
du corps cellulaire, dont la fonction
est de propulser l'organisme. Ce type
de flagelle est présent dans des
bactéries comme Escherichia coli et
Salmonella, et tourne comme une hélice
quand la bactérie se déplace. Le
flagelle peut provoquer deux types de
déplacement selon son sens de
rotation. Date November 2007 Source
self-made References: [1],[2], [3]
(main 3), [4], [5] (propeller
rotation), PMID 17142059
(bend). Author LadyofHats PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Flagellum_base_
diagram_en.svg/1000px-Flagellum_base_dia
gram_en.svg.png

4,193,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
77) Archaea (also called
archaebacteria) evolve.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html

2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html

3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life",
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/pdf/H
edges2009Chap05.pdf

5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html

6. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science, (1996). 2142-1873my
(2142-1873my)
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 2300my (2300my)
8. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4
eu) (4100my)
9. ^ Osawa, S., Honjo,
"Archaebacteria vs Metabacteria :
Phylogenetic tree of organisms
indicated by comparison of 5S ribosomal
RNA sequences.", (Tokyo: Springer,
Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of Life",
pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my (1800my)
10. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). 4000my
(4000my)
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003). 3970my (3970my)
 
[1] Deutsch: Bild über den Reitenden
Urzwerg English: Image of Nanoarchaeum
equitans Date 2005-09-10 (original
upload date) Source Originally
from de.wikipedia; description page
is/was here. Author Original
uploader was Eber-Jimmy at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) This image is in the
public domain due to its
age. Licensing According to this
article, ''Es wurde von dem
Mikrobiologen Karl O. Stetter entdeckt.
Bildrechte: Public domain.'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/Urzwerg.jpg


[2] Figure 1) Changing views of the
tree and timescale of life. a) An
early-1990s view, with the tree
determined mostly from ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) sequence analysis. This tree
emphasizes vertical (as opposed to
horizontal) evolution and the close
relationship between eukaryotes and the
Archaebacteria. The deep branching
(>3.5 Giga (109) years ago, Gya) of
CYANOBACTERIA (Cy) and other Eubacteria
(purple), the shallow branching
(approx1 Gya) of plants (Pl), animals
(An) and fungi (Fu), and the early
origin of mitochondria (Mi), were based
on interpretations of the geochemical
and fossil record7, 8. Some deeply
branching amitochondriate (Am) species
were believed to have arisen before the
origin of mitochondria44. Major
symbiotic events (black dots) were
introduced to explain the origin of
eukaryotic organelles42, but were not
assumed to be associated with large
transfers of genes to the host nucleus.
They were: Eu, joining of an
archaebacterium host with a eubacterium
(presumably a SPIROCHAETE) to produce
an amitochondriate eukaryote; Mi,
joining of a eukaryote host with an
alpha-proteobacterium (Ap) symbiont,
leading to the origin of mitochondria,
and plastids (Ps), joining of a
eukaryote host with a cyanobacterium
symbiont, forming the origin of
plastids on the plant lineage and
possibly on other lineages. b) The
present view, based on extensive
genomic analysis. Eukaryotes are no
longer considered to be close relatives
of Archaebacteria, but are genomic
hybrids of Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria, owing to the transfer of
large numbers of genes from the
symbiont genome to the nucleus of the
host (indicated by coloured arrows).
Other new features, largely derived
from molecular-clock studies16, 39 (Box
1), include a relatively recent origin
of Cyanobacteria (approx2.6 Gya) and
mitochondria (approx1.8 Gya), an early
origin (approx1.5 Gya) of plants,
animals and fungi, and a close
relationship between animals and fungi.
Coloured dashed lines indicate
controversial aspects of the present
view: the existence of a
premitochondrial symbiotic event and of
living amitochondriate eukaryotes,
ancestors of which never had
mitochondria. c) The times of
divergence of selected model organisms
from humans, based on molecular clocks.
For the prokaryotes (red), because of
different possible origins through
symbiotic events, divergence times
depend on the gene of interest.
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/full/nrg929_fs.html

4,189,000,000 YBN
5 6
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles"
evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga).3 4

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological
diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
3. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
4. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A reconstruction
of Archean biological diversity based
on", Geochimica et cosmochimica acta,
(2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] Aquifex pyrophilus (platinum
shadowed). © K.O. Stetter & Reinhard
Rachel, University of Regensburg.
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/aquifex/aquifex.ht
m

4,187,000,000 YBN
5 6
180) Archaea: Crenarchaeota
(Sulfolobus).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] tree of archaea ?
source: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gf126
5/GROUPS/KLUG/Stammbaum.html

4,187,000,000 YBN
10 11
181) Archaea: Euryarchaeota
{YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu6 } (methanogens,
halobacteria).7 8

Earliest cell response to light.9

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryar
chaeota&submit=Submit

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/44

5. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryar
chaeota&submit=Submit

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/44

9. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

10. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

11. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/44


MORE INFO
[1] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin
and evolution of model organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849
(November 2002),
doi:10.1038/nrg929 http://www.nature.co
m/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html#to
p

 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] tree of archaebacteria (archaea)
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gf126
5/GROUPS/KLUG/Stammbaum.html

4,112,000,000 YBN
3
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells
that can produce some of their own
food.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/44

 
[1] Description Methanopyrus
kandleri Date July
2006 Source ms:Imej:Arkea.jpg Auth
or ms:User:PM Poon GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/aa/Arkea.jpg

4,100,000,000 YBN
6
49) Photosynthesis.1

Bacteria use light particles to convert
carbon dioxide gas and a an electron
donor2 like Hydrogen sulfide into
glucose, water, and sulfur.3 Also
called "Carbon fixation".4

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ "reductant."Answers.com
14 Jul. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
3. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical
Universe: An Introduction to
Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=
v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537

4. ^ "carbon fixation>.".
Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).
Random House, Inc. "carbon
fixation." The American Heritage®
Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 14 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/c
arbon fixation>.
5. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang
Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its
Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia
Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

6. ^ Olson JM (May 2006).
"Photosynthesis in the Archean era".
Photosyn. Res. 88 (2): 109–17.
doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/c
ontent/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP
{Olson_
2006.pdf}

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology",
2009, 190-198
 
[1] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_1.gif


[2] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_2.gif

4,000,000,000 YBN
8
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II
evolves. Cells emit free Oxygen.4

Bacteria use light particles to convert
carbon dioxide gas and water into
glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the
process.5 6

This is the main system responsible for
producing the Oxygen now in the air of
Earth.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/fara
bee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
2. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/fara
bee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
3. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecke
d/topic/458172/photosynthesis
>.
4. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/fara
bee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
5. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecke
d/topic/458172/photosynthesis
>.
6. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical
Universe: An Introduction to
Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=
v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537

7. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecke
d/topic/458172/photosynthesis
>.
8. ^ Olson JM (May 2006).
"Photosynthesis in the Archean era".
Photosyn. Res. 88 (2): 109–17.
doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059.

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology",
2009, 190-198
 
[1] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_1.gif


[2] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_2.gif

4,000,000,000 YBN
4
51) End of Hadean {HADEiN1 } start of
Archean {oRKEiN2 } Eon.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time

2. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
3. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

4. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time",
2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/
pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

3,950,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity
evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay
fastened together after cell division.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of
multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

2. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of
multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

3. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of
multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The
origins of multicellularity. Integr.
Biol. 1, 27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

6. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Grosberg R. K., Strathmann R.
R. 2007 The evolution of
multicellularity: a minor major
transition? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.
38, 621–654.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.1
14735)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/1
0.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735

[2] Rokas A. 2008 The origins of
multicellularity and the early history
of the genetic toolkit for animal
development. Ann. Rev. Genet. 42,
235–251.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091
513) http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Inb
oundService.do?UT=000261767000011&IsProd
uctCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord&product=WOS&
SID=1EHDdbNiNf4NO8nC299&smartRedirect=ye
s&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.we
bofknowledge.com%3FDestApp%3DCEL%26DestP
arams%3D%253Faction%253Dretrieve%2526mod
e%253DFullRecord%2526product%253DCEL%252
6UT%253D000261767000011%2526customersID%
253DHighwire%26e%3DQZIAIzGgKoYbxc_i_WNam
laqQ0.s968BNEwQvqhM9p.770dFYju0AbJCFAAcj
orA%26SrcApp%3DHighwire%26SrcAuth%3DHigh
wire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=Hi
ghwire&customersID=Highwire&Func=Frame

 
[1] Microgram of filamentous bacteria
from flexible setae. (Courtesy
Zoosystema © 2005) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s
2009/decker_rour/images/yeti-crab-filame
ntous-bacteria.JPG


[2] Filamentous Bacteria Microthrix
Parvicella UNKNOWN
source: http://ebsbiowizard.com/wp-conte
nt/gallery/filamentous-bacteria-microthr
ix-parvicella/filamentous-bacteria-micro
thrix-parvicella.jpg

3,950,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
316) Cell differentiation evolves in
filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of
cells.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

3. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

4. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The
biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D
0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238

5. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N.
SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès:
Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.c
om/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins
of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

 
[1] Adapted from: Anabaena smitthi
COPYRIGHTED FRANCE
source: http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogi
e/svt/photo/microalg/anabaena.jpg


[2] Anabaena COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://home.manhattan.edu/~franc
es.cardillo/plants/monera/anabaena.gif

3,950,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make
nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fi
xation

2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

3. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fi
xation

4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

5. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

6. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

7. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The
biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D
0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238

8. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N.
SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès:
Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.c
om/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract

West Africa5  
[1] Fig. 2. Modern cyanobacterial
akinetes and Archaeoellipsoides
fossils. (A) Three-month-old culture of
living A. cylindrica grown in a medium
without combined nitrogen. A, akinete;
H, heterocyst; V, vegetative cells.
(B–D) Shown are Archaeoellipsoides
fossils from 1,500-Ma Billyakh Group,
northern Siberia (B); 1,650-Ma McArthur
Group, northern Australia (C); and
2,100-Ma Franceville Group, Gabon (D).
(Scale bars, 10 μm.) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
14/5442/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Modern cyanobacterial
akinetes and Archaeoellipsoides
fossils. (A) Three-month-old culture of
living A. cylindrica grown in a medium
without combined nitrogen. A, akinete;
H, heterocyst; V, vegetative cells.
(B–D) Shown are Archaeoellipsoides
fossils from 1,500-Ma Billyakh Group,
northern Siberia (B); 1,650-Ma McArthur
Group, northern Australia (C); and
2,100-Ma Franceville Group, Gabon (D).
(Scale bars, 10 μm.) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
14/5442/F2.large.jpg

3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First
aerobic (or "oxygenic") cell. These
cells use oxygen to convert glucose
into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.3

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^
Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162-184.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et
al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008,
p162-184.
 
[1] purple aerobic bacteria UNKNOWN
source: http://endosymbiotichypothesis.f
iles.wordpress.com/2010/09/rain-bacteria
.jpg


[2] Organisms of Rickettsia conorii
(r), a close relative of R. rickettsii,
in a cultured human endothelial cell
are located free in the cytosol. One
rickettsia is dividing by binary
fission (arrowhead). (B) These
rickettsiae can move inside the
cytoplasm of the host cell because of
the propulsive force created by the
''tail'' of host cell actin filaments
(arrow). Bars = 0.5 µm. Photo and
text courtesy of David H. Walker -
http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch038.htm
UNKNOWN AND Rickettsia prowazekii
(image with Rickettsia outside of
cell) COPYRIGHTED [1] Rickettsia
prowazekii COPYRIGHTED FAIR USE
source: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/peop
le/sosarafova/Assets/Bio307/liwoeste/Pic
tures/Walker%203%5B1%5D.jpghttp://web.ms
t.edu/~microbio/bio221_2001/Image9.jpg

3,850,000,000 YBN
12
36) Oldest physical evidence for life:
ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in
grains of ancient minerals.5 6 7

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12
isotope.8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
2. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

3. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

4. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

5. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

6. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

7. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
8. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

9. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

10. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

11. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

12. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Banded iron formation."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 11
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/banded-iron
-formation

[2] Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for
Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

AND http://www.nature.com/nature/journa
l/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
Akilia Island, Western Greenland10 11
 

[1] Figure 1 from: Mojzsis, S. J. et
al. ''Evidence for Life on Earth Before
3,800 Million Years Ago.'' Nature
384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf


[2] Figure 1 from: Mojzsis, S. J. et
al. ''Evidence for Life on Earth Before
3,800 Million Years Ago.'' Nature
384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

3,850,000,000 YBN
13
45) Oldest sediment, the Banded Iron
Formation begins.7
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that
spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years
ago, made of iron-rich silicates with
alternating layers of black colored
reduced iron and red colored oxidized
iron8 9 and represents a seasonal rise
and fall of free oxygen in the ocean,
possibly linked to photosynthetic
organisms.10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7,
1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
2. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov
7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
3. ^ Cesare Emiliani, Plant
Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel,
New Views on an Old Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/bo
oks?id=R6b3skeNXrgC

4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Konhauser,
Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have
Formed the Precambrian Banded Iron
Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002):
1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/30/12/1079.abstract

6. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al.
“Deposition of Banded Iron Formations
by Anoxygenic Phototrophic
Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology
33.11 (2005): 865 -868.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/33/11/865.abstract

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Cesare
Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and
Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an Old
Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/bo
oks?id=R6b3skeNXrgC

9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^
Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could
Bacteria Have Formed the Precambrian
Banded Iron Formations?” Geology
30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/30/12/1079.abstract

11. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al.
“Deposition of Banded Iron Formations
by Anoxygenic Phototrophic
Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology
33.11 (2005): 865 -868.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/33/11/865.abstract

12. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7,
1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
13. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov
7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102, {3850 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Roger Lewin, "Thread of
Life", (New York: Smithsonian Books,
1982). p102
[2]
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

[3] "Banded iron formation". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_iron
_formation

Akilia Island, Western Greenland12
 

[1] image of BIF from Akilia from
Nature COPYRIGHTED
source: nature 11/7/96


[2] portion taken
from: Description English: This
image shows a 2.1 billion years old
rock containing black-banded ironstone,
which has a weight of about 8.5 tons.
The approximately two meter high, three
meter wide, and one meter thick block
of stone was found in North America and
belongs to the National Museum of
Mineralogy and Geology in Dresden,
Germany. The rock is located at
+51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Deutsch: Dieses Bild
zeigt einen etwa 8,5 Tonnen schweren
und 2,1 Milliarden Jahre alten Block
mit Bändereisenerzen. Der etwa zwei
Meter hohe, drei Meter breite und einen
Meter tiefe Gesteinsblock wurde in
Nordamerika gefunden und gehört dem
Staatlichen Museum für Mineralogie und
Geologie Dresden. Der Block befindet
sich bei den Koordinaten +51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Camera
data Camera Nikon D70 Lens Tamron
SP AF 90mm/2.8 Di Macro 1:1 Focal
length 90 mm Aperture f/2.8 Exposure
time 1/250 s Sensivity ISO 200 Please
help translating the description into
more languages. Thanks a lot! If
you want a license with the conditions
of your choice, please email me to
negotiate terms. best new
image Date 26 August
2005 Source Own
work Author André Karwath aka
Aka CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Black-band_iron
stone_%28aka%29.jpg/1280px-Black-band_ir
onstone_%28aka%29.jpg

3,500,000,000 YBN
9 10
39) Oldest fossil evidence of life:
stromatolites.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

2. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

3. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

4. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

5. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

6. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

7. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

8. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

9. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

10. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig
Tree Group, South Africa7 8  

[1] image on left is from swaziland
source: nature feb 6


[2]
source: 1986

3,500,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17
287) Oldest fossils of an organism,
similar to cyanobacteria
{SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u7 }.8 9

2.8 billion years will pass before the
first animal evolves.10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

2. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

3. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

4. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life,
Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
7. ^
"cyanobacterium." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacter
ia

8. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

9. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

11. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life,
Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Schopf, J.
William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of
Earth’s Earliest Fossils." Nature
416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

13. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R.
Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from
the 3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa."
Nature 314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html

14. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R.
Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from
the 3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa."
Nature 314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html

15. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

16. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

17. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html


MORE INFO
[1] BIO415 (Author? University?)
Multicelluarity.pdf (t3:
multicellularity of cyanobacteria)
[2] t3:
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sab
edon/biol3018.htm
multicellularity.
"Some cyanobacteria species exist in a
truly, though primitive, multicellular
form in which cellular differentiation
occurs."
Warrawoona, northwestern Western
Australia12 and Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa13
 

[1] Figure 1 Optical photomicrographs
showing carbonaceous (kerogenous)
filamentous microbial fossils in
petrographic thin sections of
Precambrian cherts. Scale in a
represents images in a and c-i; scale
in b represents image in b. All parts
show photomontages, which is
necessitated by the three-dimensional
preservation of the cylindrical sinuous
permineralized microbes. Squares in
each part indicate the areas for which
chemical data are presented in Figs 2
and 3. a, An unnamed cylindrical
prokaryotic filament, probably the
degraded cellular trichome or tubular
sheath of an oscillatoriacean
cyanobacterium, from the 770-Myr
Skillogalee Dolomite of South
Australia12. b, Gunflintia grandis, a
cellular probably oscillatoriacean
trichome, from the 2,100-Myr Gunflint
Formation of Ontario, Canada13. c, d,
Unnamed highly carbonized filamentous
prokaryotes from the 3,375-Myr Kromberg
Formation of South Africa14: the poorly
preserved cylindrical trichome of a
noncyanobacterial or oscillatoriacean
prokaryote (c); the disrupted,
originally cellular trichomic remnants
possibly of an Oscillatoria- or
Lyngbya-like cyanobacterium (d). e-i,
Cellular microbial filaments from the
3,465-Myr Apex chert of northwestern
Western Australia: Primaevifilum
amoenum4,5, from the collections of The
Natural History Museum (TNHM), London,
specimen V.63164[6] (e); P. amoenum4
(f); the holotype of P.
delicatulum4,5,15, TNHM V.63165[2] (g);
P. conicoterminatum5, TNHM V63164[9]
(h); the holotype of Eoleptonema apex5,
TNHM V.63729[1] (i).
source: Nature416


[2] Fig. 3 Filamentous microfossils:
a, cylindrical microfossil from
Hooggenoeg sample; b, threadlike and
tubular filaments extending between
laminae, Kromberg sample; c,d,e,
tubular filamnets oriented subparallel
to bedding, Kromberg sample; f,
threadlike filament flattened parallel
to bedding, Kromberg sample.
source: 73 - 76 (07 Mar 2002) Letters
to Nature
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v41
6/n6876/fig_tab/416073a_F1.html

3,400,000,000 YBN
4
190) Earliest fossils of coccoid
{KoKOED1 } (spherical) bacteria.2

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "coccoid." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04
Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)


MORE INFO
[1] maybe evidence: Nagy, B. and
Nagy, L.A., 1969. Early Precambrian
microstructures: possibly the oldest
fossils on Earth?. Nature 223, pp.
1226-1229.?
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System,
South Africa3  

[1] Fig. 3. from: Hans D. Pflug,
Earliest organic evolution. Essay to
the memory of Bartholomew Nagy,
Precambrian Research, Volume 106,
Issues 1–2, 1 February 2001, Pages
79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261 (a,b) Organic
microstructures from Kromberg
Formation, Swaziland System, South
Africa (ca 3.4 Ga). TEM-micrographs of
demineralized specimens. (c) Portion of
organic microstructure from Bulawaya
stromatolite (see Fig. 2). (d) Portion
of the mucilagenous sheath of recent
Anabaena sp., cyanobacteria (Fig. d
after Leak, 1967). For magnification of
Fig. c see scale of Fig.
a. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence/article/pii/S0301926800001261


[2] Fig. 3. from: Hans D. Pflug,
Earliest organic evolution. Essay to
the memory of Bartholomew Nagy,
Precambrian Research, Volume 106,
Issues 1–2, 1 February 2001, Pages
79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261 (a,b) Organic
microstructures from Kromberg
Formation, Swaziland System, South
Africa (ca 3.4 Ga). TEM-micrographs of
demineralized specimens. (c) Portion of
organic microstructure from Bulawaya
stromatolite (see Fig. 2). (d) Portion
of the mucilagenous sheath of recent
Anabaena sp., cyanobacteria (Fig. d
after Leak, 1967). For magnification of
Fig. c see scale of Fig.
a. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retriev
e&_udi=B6VBP-42G6M5T-7&_image=fig9&_ba=9
&_user=4422&_coverDate=02%2F01%2F2001&_f
mt=full&_orig=browse&_cdi=5932&view=c&_a
cct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&
_userid=4422&md5=27a45a0804747bb4b74eaac
305df2905

3,260,000,000 YBN
4
71) Prokaryote reproduction by
budding.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

Swartkoppie, South Africa3  
[1] Evolutionary relationships of model
organisms and bacteria that show
unusual reproductive strategies. This
phylogenetic tree (a) illustrates the
diversity of organisms that use the
alternative reproductive strategies
shown in (b). Bold type indicates
complete or ongoing genome projects.
Intracellular offspring are produced by
several low-GC Gram-positive bacteria
such as Metabacterium polyspora,
Epulopiscium spp. and the segmented
filamentous bacteria (SFB). Budding and
multiple fission are found in the
proteobacterial genera Hyphomonas and
Bdellovibrio, respectively. In the case
of the Cyanobacteria, Stanieria
produces baeocytes and Chamaesiphon
produces offspring by budding.
Actinoplanes produce dispersible
offspring by multiple fission of
filaments within the sporangium.
source: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/jo
urnal/v3/n3/full/nrmicro1096_fs.html
(Nature Reviews Microbiology 3


[2] Electron micrograph of a Pirellula
bacterium from giant tiger prawn tissue
(Penaeus monodon). Notice the large
crateriform structures (C) on the cell
surface and flagella. From Fuerst et
al.
source: 214-224 (2005);
doi:10.1038/nrmicro1096)

3,200,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
66) Earliest acritarch fossils
(unicellular microfossils with
uncertain affinity5 6 ). These
acritarchs are also the earliest
possible eukaryote fossils.7 8

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
2. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin
and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
3. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ac
ritarch.html

4. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early
evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256:
622-627
5. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
6. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin
and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
7. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ac
ritarch.html

8. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early
evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256:
622-627
9. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html

10. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html

{3.2 bybn}
11. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J. Javaux,
D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic
Organisms in Proterozoic Oceans",
Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major
Steps in Cell Evolution:
Palaeontological, Molecular and
Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and
Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
0209698
{1.8 bybn}
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/di
noflagfr.html
{1.8 bybn}
13. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ac
ritarch.html
{1900-1600 mybn}
14. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th
ed., 2006, p257. {1.6 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Knoll,
Andrew H., Walter, Malcolm,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
2003-02-01, Springer Netherlands,
Vol33, Iss1,
p75-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:102
3992712071

[2] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

[3] Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski,
"A Molecular Time-Scale for Eukaryote
Evolution Recalibrated with the
Continuous Microfossil Record",
Proceedings: Biological Sciences , Vol.
273, No. 1596 (Aug. 7, 2006), pp.
1867-1872 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
5223537

[4] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Andrew H.
Knoll, and Malcolm R. Walter.
“Morphological and ecological
complexity in early eukaryotic
ecosystems.” Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html

(Moodies Group) South Africa9  
[1] Figure from: Javaux, Emmanuelle
J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey
Bekker. “Organic-walled microfossils
in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html


[2] Figure from: Javaux, Emmanuelle
J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R.
Walter. “Morphological and ecological
complexity in early eukaryotic
ecosystems.” Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html Figur
e 1 Protistan microfossils from the
Roper Group. a, c, Tappania plana,
showing asymmetrically distributed
processes and bulbous protrusions
(arrow in a). b, detail of a, showing
dichotomously branching process. d,
Valeria lophostriata. e, Dictyosphaera
sp. f, Satka favosa. The scale bar in a
is 35 µm for a and c; 10 µm for b;
100 µm for d; 15 µm for e; and 40 µm
for f.
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html

2,923,000,000 YBN
10
178) Eubacteria Firmicutes
(FiRmiKYUTEZ6 ) evolve (Gram positive
bacteria: the cause of botulism,
tetanus, anthrax).7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=fi
rmicutes&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not
TOL)
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010.
Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland,
National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington
DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacte
ria?topic=49480

6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=fi
rmicutes&submit=Submit

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not
TOL)
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglyc
an

[2] firmicutes only bacteria to make
endospores
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes
[4]
http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/fir
micutes.html

 
[1] Listeria monocytogenes is a
Gram-positive bacterium, in the
division Firmicutes, named for Joseph
Lister. It is motile by means of
flagella. Some studies suggest that 1
to 10% of humans may carry L.
monocytogenes in their
intestines. Researchers have found L.
monocytogenes in at least 37 mammalian
species, both domesticated and feral,
as well as in at least 17 species of
birds and possibly in some species of
fish and shellfish. Laboratories can
isolate L. monocytogenes from soil,
silage, and other environmental
sources. L. monocytogenes is quite
hardy and resists the deleterious
effects of freezing, drying, and heat
remarkably well for a bacterium that
does not form spores. Most L.
monocytogenes are pathogenic to some
degree.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Listeria.jpg


[2] These are bacteria (about 0.3 µm
in diameter) that do not have outer
walls, only cytoplasmic membranes.
However, they do have cytoskeletal
elements that give them a distinct
non-spherical shape. They look like
schmoos that are pulled along by their
heads. How they are able to glide is a
mystery.
source: http://webmac.rowland.org/labs/b
acteria/projects_glide.html

2,920,000,000 YBN
2
288) First endospores. The ability to
form endospores evolves in firmicutes.
An endospore is a tough reduced dry
form of a bacterium that can be revived
after long periods of time.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria.
Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney
Draggan and C.J. Cleveland, National
Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington DC
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteri
a?topic=49480

2. ^ Ted Huntington, a total guess my
friends

MORE INFO
[1] "Endospore". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
 
[1] Spore forming inside a bacterium.
Stahly, MicrobeLibrary COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.microbe.org/microbes/
spores.asp


[2] Listeria monocytogenes is a
Gram-positive bacterium, in the
division Firmicutes, named for Joseph
Lister. It is motile by means of
flagella. Some studies suggest that 1
to 10% of humans may carry L.
monocytogenes in their
intestines. Researchers have found L.
monocytogenes in at least 37 mammalian
species, both domesticated and feral,
as well as in at least 17 species of
birds and possibly in some species of
fish and shellfish. Laboratories can
isolate L. monocytogenes from soil,
silage, and other environmental
sources. L. monocytogenes is quite
hardy and resists the deleterious
effects of freezing, drying, and heat
remarkably well for a bacterium that
does not form spores. Most L.
monocytogenes are pathogenic to some
degree.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Listeria.jpg

2,800,000,000 YBN
9
76) Eubacteria Proteobacteria evolve
(Rickettsia {ancestor of all
mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, E
coli).5 6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
4. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
8. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] multicellularity.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sab
edon/biol3018.htm
multicellularity.
Multicellularity.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia
_coli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacte
ria
[2] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia
Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October
1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html

[3] "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>
[4] conjugation in protists, flagella
in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)
[5] prokaryote
pili and archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cf
m?meds=profile&profile=12

[6] Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria
classis nov., a name for the
phylogenetic taxon that includes the
"purple bacteria and their relatives".
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38,
321–325. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/c
ontent/38/3/321.full.pdf

 
[1] Figure 1. Transmission electron
micrograph of the ELB agent in XTC-2
cells. The rickettsia are free in the
cytoplasm and surrounded by an electron
transparent halo. Original
magnification X 30,000. CDC PD
source: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
eid/vol7no1/raoultG1.htm


[2] Caulobacter crescentus. From
http://sunflower.bio.indiana.edu/~ybrun/
L305.html COPYRIGHTED EDU was in wiki
but appears to be removed
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/4/42/Caulobacter.jpg

2,800,000,000 YBN
21
177) Gender and sex (conjugation)
evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo
KOlI13 } bacteria. Conjugation is the
exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor
{male} bacterium through a pilus to a
recipient {female} bacterium.14 15 16
17 18 19

Proteins that can cut or connect
strands of DNA evolve.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia
Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October
1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
{Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
2. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>.
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
6. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
7. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E.
L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in
Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558
(19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0
Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
{Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
8. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
12. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
13. ^ "Escherichia coli."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 30 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/E
scherichia coli>.
14. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E.
L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in
Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558
(19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0
Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
{Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
15. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>.
16. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
19. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
20. ^ prokaryote pili and
archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cf
m?meds=profile&profile=12

21. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}
 
[1] the fertility factor or F factor is
a very large (94,500 bp) circular dsDNA
plasmid; it is generally independent of
the host chromosome. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.mun.ca/biochem/course
s/3107/images/Fplasmidmap.gif


[2] conjugation (via pilus)
COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/16
0/conjugation.jpg

2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.3

These cells depend on the DNA
duplicating and protein producing
systems of other cells to copy
themselves.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm

2. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm

3. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm

4. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm

 
[1] Description Electron
micrograph of Bacteriophages Date
Source
en:Image:Phage.jpg Author
en:User:GrahamColm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/52/Phage.jpg

2,784,000,000 YBN
5
176) Eubacteria Planctomycetes
{PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS3 } (or
Planctobacteria).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planct
omycetes&submit=Submit

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planct
omycetes&submit=Submit

4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] s10
http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/5
0/6/1965

[2]
http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/6/resear
ch/0031

[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planctomyce
tes

[4] Lee, Kuo-Chang, Rick Webb, and John
Fuerst. “The Cell Cycle of the
Planctomycete Gemmata Obscuriglobus
with Respect to Cell
Compartmentalization.” BMC Cell
Biology 10.1 (2009):
4. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-21
21/10/4/

 
[1] Electron micrographs of cells of
new Gemmata-like and Isosphaera-like
isolates. (A) Negatively stained cell
of the Gemmata-like strain JW11-2f5
showing crateriform structures
(arrowhead) and coccoid cell
morphology. Bar marker, 200 nm. (B)
Negatively stained budding cell of
Isosphaera-like strain CJuql1 showing
uniform crateriform structures
(arrowhead) on the mother cell and
coccoid cell morphology. Bar marker,
200 nm. (C) Thin section of
Gemmata-like cryosubstituted cell of
strain JW3-8s0 showing the
double-membrane-bounded nuclear body
(NB) and nucleoid (N) enclosed within
it. Bar marker, 200 nm. (D) Thin
section of Isosphaera-like strain C2-3
possessing a fibrillar nucleoid (N)
within a cytoplasmic compartment
bounded by a single membrane (M) only.
Bar marker, 200 nm. Appl Environ
Microbiol. 2002 January; 68(1):
417-422. doi:
10.1128/AEM.68.1.417-422.2002.
source: http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/art
iclerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=117
72655


[2] Evolutionary distance tree derived
from comparative analysis of 16S rDNAs
from freshwater and soil isolates and
reference strains of the order
Planctomycetales. Database accession
numbers are shown in parentheses after
species, strain, or clone names.
Bootstrap values of greater than 70%
from 100 bootstrap resamplings from the
distance analysis are presented at
nodes. Thermotoga maritima was used as
an outgroup. Isolates from this study
and representative named species of the
planctomycetes are indicated in bold.
The scale bar represents 0.1 nucleotide
substitution per nucleotide
position. Appl Environ Microbiol.
2002 January; 68(1): 417-422. doi:
10.1128/AEM.68.1.417-422.2002.
source: http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/m
ypa/images/fuerst2.gif

2,784,000,000 YBN
13
179) Eubacteria Actinobacteria
{aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu7 } (Gram positive,
source of streptomycin).8 9 10 11 12

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ac
tinobacteria&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not
TOL
4. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacte
ria

5. ^
http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archiv
es/leprosy.htm

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ac
tinobacteria&submit=Submit

8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not
TOL
10. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacte
ria

11. ^
http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archiv
es/leprosy.htm

12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] "streptomyces." Britannica
Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010.
Answers.com 04 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/streptomyce
s

 
[1] Aerial mycelium and spore of
Streptomyces coelicolor. The mycelium
and the oval spores are about 1µm
wide, typical for bacteria and much
smaller than fungal hyphae and spores.
(Scanning electron micrograph, Mark
Buttner, Kim Findlay, John Innes
Centre). COPYRIGHT UK
source: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects
/S_coelicolor/micro_image4.shtml


[2] Frankia is a genus of
nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, which
possesses a set of features that are
unique amongst symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing microorganisms,
including rhizobia, making it an
attractive taxon to study. These
heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria
which are able to induce symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing root nodules
(actinorhizas) in a wide range of
dicotyledonous species (actinorhizal
plants), have also the capacity to fix
atmospheric nitrogen in culture and
under aerobic conditions.
source: http://www.ibmc.up.pt/webpagesgr
upos/cam/Frankia.htm

2,775,000,000 YBN
5
174) Eubacteria Spirochaetes
(SPIrOKETEZ3 ) (Syphilis, Lyme
disease).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunc
iation%20Guide.pdf
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunc
iation%20Guide.pdf
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ estimated from
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] "spirochete." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/spirochete
 
[1] Syphilis is a complex, sexually
transmitted disease (STD) with a highly
variable clinical course. The disease
is caused by the bacterium, Treponema
pallidum. In the United States, 32,871
cases of syphilis, including 432 cases
of congenital syphilis, were detected
by public health officials in 2002.
Eight of the ten states with the
highest rates of syphilis are located
in the southern region of the United
States.
source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/tus
kegee/syphilis.htm


[2] unknown
source: http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/
images/Treponema%20pallidum.jpg

2,775,000,000 YBN
7 8
175) Eubacteria Bacteroidetes
{BaKTRrOEDiTEZ4 }.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ba
cteroidetes+&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).. ^
4. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ba
cteroidetes+&submit=Submit

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).. ^
7. ^ estimate from Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidet
es

[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
 
[1] Description Bacteroides
biacutis—one of many en:commensal
anaerobic en:Bacteroides spp. in the
en:gastrointestinal tract—cultured in
blood agar medium for 48
hours. Obtained from the CDC Public
Health Image Library. Image credit:
CDC/Dr. V.R. Dowell, Jr. (PHIL #3087),
1972. Date 2006-03-11 (original
upload date) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
MarcoTolo at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) PD-USGOV-HHS-CDC. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Bacteroides_bia
cutis_01.jpg/1280px-Bacteroides_biacutis
_01.jpg


[2] Bacteroides fragilis . From the
Zdravotni University
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/bacteroidete_chlor
ob_group/bacteroides/bacteroides.htm

2,775,000,000 YBN
5
217) Eubacteria Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I
or Klo-mi-DE-E3 } evolve.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ch
lamydiae&submit=Submit

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ch
lamydiae&submit=Submit

4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicr
obia

 
[1] cell infected with Chlamydia The
Bavoil laboratory studies the
pathogenesis of the obligate
intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia, and
its bacteriophages. Specific research
areas include the role of Chlamydia
type III secretion in pathogenesis and
development, the impact of Chlamydia
phage infection on disease, the role of
the polymorphic membrane protein family
of C. trachomatis in infection and
disease and comparative genomics within
the Chlamydiaceae. [1] Chlamydia
trachomatis wiki, is copyrighted
source: http://www.dental.umaryland.edu/
sebin/p/o/chlamydia_infected_cell2.jpg


[2] wiki, public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chl
amydia_trachomatis

2,775,000,000 YBN
5 6
6309) Eubacteria Chlorobi (green
sulphur bacteria).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).. ^
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).. ^
5. ^ estimate from Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidet
es

[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
 
[1] Description Deutsch: Grüne
Schwefelbakterien (Chlorobiaceae) im
unteren Bereich einer
Winogradsky-Säule Date
20.03.2007 (20 March 2007
(original upload date)) Source
Transferred from de.wikipedia;
transfer was stated to be made by
User:Jacopo Werther. (Original text :
Mikrobiologie Praktikum Universität
Kassel März 2007) Author
kOchstudiO. Original uploader was
KOchstudiO at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). (Original text
: uneingeschränkte Nutzung) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e7/Green_d_winogradsky.j
pg


[2] Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p194. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p194.

2,775,000,000 YBN
5
6310) Eubacteria Verrucomicrobia
(VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo3 ).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ve
rrucomicrobia&submit=Submit

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ve
rrucomicrobia&submit=Submit

4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicr
obia

 
[1] Figure 1 Transmission electron
micrographs of high-pressure frozen and
cryosubstituted Verrucomicrobium
spinosum. A. Cell prepared by
high-pressure freezing and
cryosubstitution showing prostheca
(PT), paryphoplasm (P), and an
intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM)
enclosing a pirellulosome region
containing a condensed fibrillar
nucleoid (N). Inset: enlarged view of
area of cell outlined in the white box
showing cytoplasmic membrane (CM),
paryphoplasm and ICM. B.
freeze-fracture replica of cell showing
cross-fractured paryphoplasm (P) and
fracture faces of ICM and CM. Bar –
500 nm Lee et al. BMC Microbiology
2009 9:5
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-5 CC
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2180-9-5-1-l.jpg


[2] Figure 2 Transmission electron
micrograph of high-pressure frozen and
cryosubstituted Verrucomicrobium
spinosum. Cell prepared by
high-pressure freezing and
cryosubstitution showing prostheca
(PT), ribosome-free paryphoplasm (P),
and an intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM)
enclosing a pirellulosome region
containing a condensed fibrillar
nucleoid (N). Membrane-bounded
vesicle-like compartments within some
prosthecae extensions are also present
(see arrowheads). Bar – 1 μm Lee
et al. BMC Microbiology 2009 9:5
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-5 CC
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2180-9-5-2-l.jpg

2,730,000,000 YBN
3 4
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells
can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane
folds inward to bring substances into
the cell.1

In Exocytosis substances contained in
vesicles are released from the cell.2

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ "endocytosis." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07
Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis

2. ^ "exocytosis." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07
Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess
and }
4. ^ guess based on Cavalier-Smith
stating that endocytosis occurs before
a cytoskeleton {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn
guess and}
 
[1] Endocytosis and Exocytosis: For
example, this electron micrograph is
showing the process of exocytosis . The
process begins by fusion of the
membranes at the peripheral pole of the
granule. Then an opening is created
which widens to look like an omicron
figure. This opening allows the
granular material to be released. The
membrane is now part of the plasma
membrane and any proteins carried with
it can be incorporated into the plasma
membrane. Note that there is no coating
on the membrane. This figure was taken
from Alberts et al, Molecular Biology
of the Cell, Garland Publishing Third
Edition, 1994 In contrast, this
micrograph shows a figure which looks
something like an omicron, however,
this view is showing receptor mediated
endocytosis of virus particles. In both
cases, the membrane is coated with
clathrin and these represent classical
receptor mediated endocytosis profiles.
Most ligands cannot be visualized by
themselves, like a virus particle.
Therefore, the cytochemist must attach
label to the ligand. Alternatively, the
cytochemist could immunocytochemically
detect the receptor with antibodies
that recognize the extracellular
domain. This figure was taken from
Endocytosis, Edited by Ira Pastan and
Mark C. Willingham, Plenum Press, N.Y.,
1985 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.cytochemistry.net/cel
l-biology/end7.jpg


[2] Pinocytosis In the process of
pinocytosis the plasma membrane froms
an invagination. What ever substance
is found within the area of
invagination is brought into the
cell. In general this material will
be dissolved in water and thus this
process is also refered to as
''cellular drinking'' to indicate that
liquids and material dissolved in
liquids are ingested by the
cell. This is opposed to the
ingestion of large particulate material
like bacteria or other cells or cell
debris. UNKNOWN
source: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.ed
u/biology/bio4fv/page/endocytb.htm

2,700,000,000 YBN
12
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell
with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding
of plasma membrane.3

In prokaryotic cells the DNA is not
membrane enclosed while in eukaryotic
cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells.4
Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic
cells have a cytoskeleton. Eukaryotic
cells may have mitochondria and
plastids, which prokaryotic cells
lack.5 DNA in prokaryotic cells is
usually a single circular chromosome,
while DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes
contains linear chromosomes.6

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably
haploid (a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets
of DNA).7 8 9 10

All protists, fungi, animals and plant
cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
2. ^ Campbell, Reece,
et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
3. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008,
p516-517.
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
2008, p98.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
6. ^ Jill Saffrey,
"Biology: uniformity & diversity. Core
of life, Book 3, Volume 2", 2001,
p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=
43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353

7. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring
evolutionary biology: readings from
American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=
AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw

8. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles
and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id
=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181

9. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim,
"Computer analysis of genetic
macromolecules: structure, function,
and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=cr
ip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2

10. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/top
ic/diploid

11. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p98.
12. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC
Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa,
"A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{split of archae and
eukaryote at c4.0 bybn, but eukaryote
{with nucleus?} at) 2.7 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levin, "The Earth
Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p256
[2]
Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

[3] Alexey S. Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY
GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 28:
391-435 (Volume publication date
November 1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/do
i/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 2008, p517. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p517.


[2]
http://www.regx.de/m_organisms.php#planc
to
source: http://www.regx.de/m_organisms.p
hp#plancto

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence
of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN4 }
molecules).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick,
Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

4. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick,
Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 1033-1036 , 13
August 1999 Archean Molecular Fossils
and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes Jochen J. Brocks, 1,2*
Graham A. Logan, 2 Roger Buick, 1 Roger
E. Summons 2
Northwestern Australia7 8  
[1] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons,
''Archean Molecular Fossils and the
Early Rise of Eukaryotes'', Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13 August 1999,
p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves,
a membrane system that extends from the
nucleus, important in the synthesis of
proteins and lipids.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum."
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic
-reticulum

2. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum."
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic
-reticulum

 
[1] Figure 1 : Image of n, endoplasmic
reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (1)
Nucleus. (2) Nuclear pore. (3) Rough
endoplasmic reticulum (RER). (4) Smooth
endoplasmic reticulum (SER). (5)
Ribosome on the rough ER. (6) Proteins
that are transported. (7) Transport
vesicle. (8) Golgi apparatus. (9) Cis
face of the Golgi apparatus. (10) Trans
face of the Golgi apparatus. (11)
Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. I
am the copyright holder of that image
(I might even have the CorelDraw file
around somewhere:-), and I hereby place
the image and all partial images
created from it in the public domain.
So, you are free to use it any way you
like. In fact, I am delighted that one
of my drawings makes it into
print! I can mail you the .cdr file,
if you like (and if I can find it), if
you need a better resolution for
printing. Yours, Magnus
Manske Source: See also User:Magnus
Manske
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Nucleus_ER_golgi.jpg


[2] Description English: The
elongation and membrane targeting
stages of eukaryotic translation. The
ribosome is green and yellow, the tRNAs
are dark blue, and the other proteins
involved are light blue. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3c/Translation.gif

2,690,000,000 YBN
9 10
207) Cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN5 }
forms in eukaryote cytoplasm.6 7 8

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12
Feb. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleto
n

2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony
2005 vol95 issue 1
3. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at
Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman
Inc, New York. Margulis, L., Dolan,
M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from
the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
4. ^
Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and
Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993
second edition
5. ^ "cytoskeleton." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 12 Feb. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleto
n

6. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony
2005 vol95 issue 1
7. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at
Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman
Inc, New York. Margulis, L., Dolan,
M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from
the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
8. ^
Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and
Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993
second edition
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A
genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess
and }
10. ^ guess based on ER and golgi
made of same material as cytoskeleton,
and after first eukaryote cell {Nucleus
2700 +10mybn guess and}
 
[1] English: Endothelial cells under
the microscope. Nuclei are stained blue
with DAPI, microtubles are marked green
by an antibody bound to FITC and actin
filaments are labelled red with
phalloidin bound to TRITC. Bovine
pulmonary artery endothelial
cells http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/images
/ PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/09/FluorescentCells.jpg


[2] FIG. 7. In vitro polymerization
of cytoskeletal proteins of the
MinD/ParA superfamily. (A) Formation of
MinD filament bundles in the presence
of MinE, ATP, and phospholipid
vesicles. One end of the bundle is
markedly frayed because of the presence
of MinE. (Reprinted from reference 198
with permission of the publisher.
Copyright 2003 National Academy of
Sciences, U.S.A.) (B) Formation of a
ParApTP228(ParF) filament bundle in the
presence of ParBpTP228(ParG) and ATP.
ParBpTP228(ParG) stimulates formation
of the frayed end(s) of the
ParApTP228(ParF) bundle. (Reprinted
from reference 11 by permission from
Macmillan Publishers Ltd.) (C)
Formation of Soj filaments in the
presence of DNA and ATP. (Reprinted
from reference 116 by permission from
Macmillan Publishers Ltd.) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
articles/PMC1594594/bin/zmr0030621350007
.jpg

2,690,000,000 YBN
1
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia
evolve.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
 
[1] Cilia and flagella are projections
from the cell. They are made up of
microtubules , as shown in this cartoon
and are covered by an extension of the
plasma membrane. They are motile and
designed either to move the cell itself
or to move substances over or around
the cell. The primary purpose of cilia
in mammalian cells is to move fluid,
mucous, or cells over their surface.
Cilia and flagella have the same
internal structure. The major
difference is in their length. This
figure shows a cross section of a
cilium next to a longitudinal section.
Below, we will see how the microtubules
are organized in the core (shown in the
cartoon in this figure). Also shown is
the centriole or basal body that
organizes the formation and direction
of the cilia. COPYRIGHTED
source: Description Transmission
electron microscope image, showing an
example of green algae
(Chlorophyta). Chlamydomanas
reinhardtii is a unicellular flagellate
used as a model system in molecular
genetics work and flagellar motility
studies. This image is a
longitudinal section through the
flagella area. In the cell apex is the
basal body that is the anchoring site
for a flagella. Basal bodies originate
from and have a substructure similar to
that of centrioles, with nine
peripheral microtubule triplets(see
structure at bottom center of image).
The two inner microtubules of each
triplet in a basal body become the two
outer doublets in the flagella. This
image also shows the transition region,
with its fibers of the stellate
structure. The top of the image shows
the flagella passing through the cell
wall. Date 20 September
2007 Source Source and public domain
notice at
http://remf.dartmouth.edu/imagesindex.ht
ml Author Dartmouth Electron
Microscope Facility, Dartmouth
College PD


[2] This figure shows an electron
micrograph of a cross section of a
cilium. Note that you can see the
dynein arms and the nexin links. The
dynein arms have ATPase activity. In
the presence of ATP, they can move from
one tubulin to another. They enable the
tubules to slide along one another so
the cilium can bend. The dynein
bridges are regulated so that sliding
leads to synchronized bending. Because
of the nexin and radial spokes, the
doublets are held in place so sliding
is limited lengthwise. If nexin and the
radial spokes are subjected to enzyme
digestion, and exposed to ATP, the
doublets will continue to slide and
telescope up to 9X their length.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Chlamydomonas_T
EM_09.jpg/1280px-Chlamydomonas_TEM_09.jp
g

2,680,000,000 YBN
3
65) The circular chromosome in the
eukaryote nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC
Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa,
"A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 +20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] not all prokaryotes have
circle of
DNA: http://arjournals.annualreviews.or
g/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.
391;jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

[2] Jumas-Bilak E, Maugard C,
Michaux-Charachon S, Allardet-Servent
A, Perrin A, et al. 1995. Study of the
organization of the genomes of
Escherichia coli, Brucella melitensis
and Agrobacterium tumefaciens by
insertion of a unique restriction site.
Microbiology 141:2425-32 (Medline)
[3] Lezhava A,
Kameoka D, Sugino H, Goshi K, Shinkawa
H, et al. 1997. Chromosomal deletions
in Streptomyces griseus that remove the
afsA locus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:478-83
[4]
Marconi RT, Casjens S, Munderloh UG,
Samuels DS. 1996. Analysis of linear
plasmid dimers in Borrelia burgdorferi
sensu lato isolates: implications
concerning the potential mechanisms of
linear plasmid replication. J. Bact.
178:3357-61
 
[1] A DNA molecule is very long (a few
meters) but extremely thin (narrow;
measured in nanometers). Here is an
electron microscope photo of a DNA
strand: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
dna1.jpg


[2] [t Is this an accurate image? - Is
a chromosome made of a single wound
strand of DNA? update- no see image
8] Every cell in the human body
(except red blood cells) contains 23
pairs of chromosomes. (a) Each
chromosome is made up of a tightly
coiled strand of DNA. (b) DNA’s
uncoiled state reveals its familiar
double helix shape. If DNA is pictured
as a twisted ladder, its sides, made of
sugar and phosphate molecules, are
connected by (c) rungs made of
chemicals called bases. DNA has four
bases—adenine, thymine, guanine, and
cytosine—that form interlocking
pairs. The order of the bases along the
length of the ladder is the DNA
sequence. PD
source: https://www.llnl.gov/str/June03/
gifs/Stubbs1.gif

2,670,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves
(packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted
destinations).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/238044/Golgi-apparatus
>.
2. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/238044/Golgi-apparatus
>.

MORE INFO
[1] "Endosome." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endosome
 
[1] Figure 1: Image of nucleus,
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
apparatus: (1) Nucleus, (2) Nuclear
pore, (3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
(RER), (4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(SER), (5) Ribosome on the rough ER,
(6) Proteins that are transported, (7)
Transport vesicle, (8) Golgi apparatus,
(9) Cis face of the Golgi apparatus,
(10) Trans face of the Golgi apparatus,
(11) Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus,
(12) Secretory vesicle, (13) Plasma
membrane, (14) Exocytosis, (15)
Cytoplasm, (16) Extracellular space.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Nucleus_ER_golgi_ex.jpg


[2] no description UNKNOWN
source: http://sun.menloschool.org/~cwea
ver/cells/e/lysosomes/

2,670,000,000 YBN
3
290) The nucleolus evolves. The
nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus
that makes ribosomal RNA.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus
divides
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus
divides
3. ^ Ted Huntington guess

MORE INFO
[1] Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry Oxford University Press.
Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology © 1997, 2000, 2006
All rights
reserved. http://www.answers.com/topic/
nucleolus#ixzz2VAspF99U

 
[1] Nucleolus, COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.eccentrix.com/members
/chempics/Slike/cell/Nucleolus.jpg


[2] With the combination of x-rays
from the Advanced Light Source and a
new protein-labeling technique,
scientists can see the distribution of
the nucleoli within the nucleus of a
mammary epithelial cell. USG PD
source: http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Artic
les/Archive/xray-inside-cells.html

2,660,000,000 YBN
7
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote
cells.3 4

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic
cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the
nucleus divides resulting in two new
nuclei, each of which contains an
identical copy of the parental
chromosomes. Mitosis is usually
immediately followed by division of the
cytoplasm.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of
mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
2. ^ Brusca and
Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
3. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of
mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
4. ^ Brusca and
Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
5. ^ "mitosis." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Mar.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
8th Edition, 2008, p230-233.
7. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC
Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa,
"A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -40mybn
guess}
 
[1] Mitosis divides genetic information
during cell division Source:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer
/genetics_cell.html This image is
from the Science Primer, a work of the
National Center for Biotechnology
Information, part of the National
Institutes of Health. As a work of the
U.S. federal government, the image is
in the public domain.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mit
osis


[2] Prophase: The two round objects
above the nucleus are the centrosomes.
Note the condensed chromatin. from
Gray's Anatomy. Unless stated
otherwise, it is from the online
edition of the 20th U.S. edition of
Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body,
originally published in 1918. Online
editions can be found on Bartleby and
also on Yahoo!
source: UNKNOWN

2,640,000,000 YBN
18
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. Two
identical cells fuse (isogamy)7 . First
diploid cell. First zygote.8 9
Increase in genetic variety.10

Because of sex, two cells with
different DNA can mix providing more
genetic variety. Having two chromosome
sets also provides a backup copy of
important genes.11 12

All sexual species alternate between
haploid and diploid.13 14

This begins the haplontic life cycle:
mitosis only occurs in the haploid
phase; the only diploid cell is the
zygote15 .16 17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of
Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
2. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition,
2008, p258.
4. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of
Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
5. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition,
2008, p258.
7. ^ Karen Arms, Pamela S. Camp,
"Biology", Third Edition, 1987,
p398. http://books.google.com/books?ei=
fjtmT96tDqPQiAKP2qyiDw&id=ga_uAAAAMAAJ

8. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of
Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
9. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition,
2008, p258.
11. ^ Glenn E. Croston, "Kaplan
AP biology", 2000,
p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=P
WsKAQAAMAAJ

12. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M.
Haith, "Diseases and Disorders in
Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009,
p203.
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
14. ^
John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics",
2004, p201.
15. ^ Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced
Science - Biology. Thomas Nelson &
Sons, Limited, 1992. Bath Science 16-19
Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=
j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503

16. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
17. ^ Mark
Kirkpatrick, "The evolution of
haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=X
sgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10

18. ^ estimate based on diplomonads
having sex repro, and origin of euk
being (is now) {Nucleus 2700 -60mybn
guess)(was 2710mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] J. William Schopf, "Major
Events in the History of Life",
(Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Publishers, 1992).p57 (was)
 
[1] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg


[2] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg

2,640,000,000 YBN
7
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis:
a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).3 4

Meiosis, is similar to mitosis5 , but
reduces the number of chromosomes from
diploid to haploid making gametes in
animals and spores in plants.6

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/rese
arch/clevelan.html

2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in
one-division
3. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/rese
arch/clevelan.html

4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in
one-division
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
Eigth Edition, 2008, p253.
6. ^ "meiosis."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 12 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
7. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

 
[1] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg


[2] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg

2,610,000,000 YBN
12
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves.7
Anisogamy {aNISoGomE8 9 }, sex (cell
and nucleus fusion) between two cells
that are different in size or shape.10
11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^
"anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 May.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisog
amy&submit=Submit

5. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
6. ^ "anisogamy." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
8. ^ "anisogamy." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 29 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisog
amy&submit=Submit

10. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
11. ^ "anisogamy." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -90mybn
guess}
 
[1] Combination of images: Description
English: Different types of
isogamy: A) Isogamy of motile
cells B) Isogamy of non-motile
cells C) Conjugation of
gametangia Date 30 July
2008 Source Vectorised SVG version of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Isoga
my.png Author Original bitmap version
by Tameeria, SVG version by Qef Other
versions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
Isogamy.png PD AND Description
Different types of en:anisogamy:
A) Anisogamy of motile gametes B)
Oogamy (non-motile egg cell, motile
sperm cell) C) Anisogamy of
non-motile gametes Date 2008-06-30
02:07 (UTC) Source
Anisogamy.png Author This
SVG version by Qef (talk)
Anisogamy.png: Original uploader was
Tameeria at en.wikipedia Later
versions were uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d5/Isogamy.svghttp://upl
oad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7
/Anisogamy.svg


[2] Description Different types of
en:anisogamy: A) Anisogamy of motile
gametes B) Oogamy (non-motile egg
cell, motile sperm cell) C) Anisogamy
of non-motile
gametes Date 2008-06-30 02:07
(UTC) Source Anisogamy.png Author
This SVG version by Qef
(talk) Anisogamy.png: Original
uploader was Tameeria at
en.wikipedia Later versions were
uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Anisogamy.svg/1
000px-Anisogamy.svg.png

2,590,000,000 YBN
3
298) Oogamy {OoGomE1 }, a form of
anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex
between a flagellated gamete and an
unflagellated gamete.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy
&submit=Submit

2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC
Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa,
"A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -110mybn
guess}
 
[1] Combination of images: Description
English: Different types of
isogamy: A) Isogamy of motile
cells B) Isogamy of non-motile
cells C) Conjugation of
gametangia Date 30 July
2008 Source Vectorised SVG version of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Isoga
my.png Author Original bitmap version
by Tameeria, SVG version by Qef Other
versions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
Isogamy.png PD AND Description
Different types of en:anisogamy:
A) Anisogamy of motile gametes B)
Oogamy (non-motile egg cell, motile
sperm cell) C) Anisogamy of
non-motile gametes Date 2008-06-30
02:07 (UTC) Source
Anisogamy.png Author This
SVG version by Qef (talk)
Anisogamy.png: Original uploader was
Tameeria at en.wikipedia Later
versions were uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d5/Isogamy.svghttp://upl
oad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7
/Anisogamy.svg


[2] Description English: A sperm
cell fertilizing an egg cell Date
Source
http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm Autho
r Unknown Permission (Reusing this
file)
http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm P
D
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/86/Sperm-egg.jpg

2,570,000,000 YBN
3
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA
copies and then the cell divides twice
into four haploid cells).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/rese
arch/clevelan.html

2. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/rese
arch/clevelan.html

3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -130mybn
guess}
 
[1] GametoGenesis. COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/10
4/gametogenesis.jpg


[2] Sexual cycle oxymonas, identical
to saccinobaculus, one step meiosis.
haploid. COPYRIGHTED CANADA
source: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfi
eld/clevelan/oxymonas.GIF

2,558,000,000 YBN
3
171) Eubacteria "Deinococcus-Thermus".2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
 
[1] D. radiodurans growing on a
nutrient agar plate. The red color is
due to carotenoid pigment. Links to
816x711-pixel, 351KB JPG. Credit: M.
Daly, Uniformed Services University of
the Health Sciences NASA
source: http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/
headlines/images/conan/D_rad_dish.jpg


[2] Photomicrograph of Deinococcus
radiodurans, from
www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/ v34 The Oak
Ridge National Laboratory United
States Federal Government This work
is in the public domain because it is a
work of the United States Federal
Government. This applies worldwide. See
Copyright.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Deinococcus.jpg

2,558,000,000 YBN
7 8
172) Eubacteria Cyanobacteria
{SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u4 } (ancestor of all
plastids).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacter
ia

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and
evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April
2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
4. ^
"cyanobacterium." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacter
ia

5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and
evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April
2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
7. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl
es/PMC533871/
{2558 mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic
clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 ,
April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
{2558 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Journal of Molecular
Evolution Publisher: Springer-Verlag
New York ISSN: 0022-2844 (Paper)
1432-1432 (Online) Issue: Volume 42,
Number 2 Date: February 1996 Pages:
194 - 200
[4] Phylogenetic Relationships of
Nonaxenic Filamentous Cyanobacterial
Strains Based on 16S rRNA Sequence
Analysis jme_42_2_1996.pdf
[5]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacter
ia

[6] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir
Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

 
[1] Oscillatoria COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.stcsc.edu/ecology/alg
ae/oscillatoria.jpg


[2] Lyngbya COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.stanford.edu/~bohanna
n/Media/LYNGB5.jpg

2,558,000,000 YBN
3
315) Eubacteria Chloroflexi, (Green
Non-Sulphur bacteria).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004)
[2] Tree of Life
http://tolweb.org/tree/
 
[1] Chloroflexus photomicrograph from
Doe Joint Genome Institute of US Dept
Energy PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chlorofl.jpg

2,500,000,000 YBN
52) End of the Archean and start of the
Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or ProTReZOiK1
2 } Eon.3

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542
million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Proterozoic." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic

2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proter
ozoic&submit=Submit

3. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

4. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", 8th Edition, 2006, p243.
 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

2,480,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14 15
170) Bacteria live on land.7 8 9
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

2. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
3. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

4. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

5. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
6. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

7. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

8. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
9. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

10. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

11. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
12. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). (2600-2700my)
14. ^ University of
Tennessee at Knoxville. "Bacteria's
move from sea to land may have occurred
much later than thought." ScienceDaily,
22 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jul.
2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/relea
ses/2011/12/111222195017.htm

15. ^ Florence Wisniewski-Dyé, Kirill
Borziak, Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers,
Gladys Alexandre, Leonid O.
Sukharnikov, Kristin Wuichet, Gregory
B. Hurst, W. Hayes McDonald, Jon S.
Robertson, Valérie Barbe, Alexandra
Calteau, Zoé Rouy, Sophie Mangenot,
Claire Prigent-Combaret, Philippe
Normand, Mickaël Boyer, Patricia
Siguier, Yves Dessaux, Claudine
Elmerich, Guy Condemine, Ganisan
Krishnen, Ivan Kennedy, Andrew H.
Paterson, Victor González, Patrick
Mavingui, Igor B. Zhulin. Azospirillum
Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria
from Aquatic to Terrestrial
Environments. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7
(12): e1002430 DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430

MORE INFO
[1] "pyrite." The American
Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02
May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pyrite
 
[1] Acidic waste water from a modern
mining site supports the same oxygen
using bacterial life that appeared on
Earth 2.48 billion years ago. UNKNOWN

source: http://media.news.ualberta.ca/~/
media/University%20of%20Alberta/Administ
ration/External%20Relations/ExpressNews/
Images/2011/10/111020-RocksBanner-cw.jpg


[2] Bacillus specie soil
bacteria. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.scharfphoto.com/fine_
art_prints/archives/199812-054-Soil-Bact
eria.jpg

2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
 
[1] snowball Earth UNKNOWN
source: http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/fi
les/imagecache/feature/files/features/pr
int/20090528_snowball_earth.jpg


[2] Snowball Earth Snowball Earth
describes a theory that for millions of
years the Earth was entirely smothered
in ice, stretching from the poles to
the tropics. This freezing happened
over 650 million years ago in the
Pre-Cambrian, though it's now thought
that there may have been more than one
of these global glaciations. They
varied in duration and extent but
during a full-on snowball event, life
could only cling on in ice-free
refuges, or where sunlight managed to
penetrate through the ice to allow
photosynthesis. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/imag
es/ic/credit/640x395/s/sn/snowball_earth
/snowball_earth_1.jpg

2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide
formed on land, begin here, and are
also evidence of more free oxygen in
the air of Earth.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/l
ecture5.html

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/l
ecture5.html

5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/l
ecture5.html

 
[1]
http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Extension/redhi
lls/redhills.html
source: http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Extensi
on/redhills/redhills.html


[2] In Archean rocks, metals tend to
occur in low oxidation states (for
example, Fe2+ instead of Fe3+)
indicating a high metal:oxygen ratio in
the oceans and atmosphere. The
sediments are essentially rust-free.
After the late Proterozoic,
sedimentary deposits often have reddish
colors and are called red beds due to
the presence of iron-oxide coatings
between sand grains. From the later
Proterozoic onward, enough free oxygen
has been available to oxidize iron in
sediments. A sandstone butte outside
of Sedona, Arizona. Public domain
image by Jon Sullivan. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Butte_pdphoto_roadtri
p_24_bg_021604.jpg

2,000,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely
related to Rickettsia (an aerobic
proteobacteria) is captured by a
eukaryote and through endosymbiosis,
becomes the mitochondria.3

Mitochondria are organelles in most
eukaryotic cells4 , and are where
cellular respiration occurs and most of
the ATP is produced5 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

4. ^ "mitochondrion." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/386130/mitochondrion
>.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
Eigth Edition, 2008, p100.
6. ^ B. Franz
Lang, Michael W. Gray, and Gertraud
Burger, "Mitochondrial Genome Evolution
and the Origin of Eukaryotes", Annu.
Rev. Genet., V33, p351-397, p385.
1999. {2 BYBN}
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html
{average of)
2230-1840 bybn} {earliest of) 2350-1640
bybn} {average of 1995my) 2350-1640
mybn}
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{1.8 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael W. Gray, et al,
"Genome structure and gene content in
protist mitochondrial DNAs", Nucl.
Acids Res. (1998) 26(4): 865-878
doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/
26/4/865.full

 
[1] Figure from: Michael W. Gray, et
al, ''Genome structure and gene content
in protist mitochondrial DNAs'',
Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4):
865-878 doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/
26/4/865.full Phylogenetic hypothesis
of the eukaryotic lineage based on
ultrastructural and molecular data.
Organisms are divided into three main
groups distinguished by mitochondrial
cristal shape (either discoidal,
flattened or tubular). Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional data. Color coding
of organismal genus names indicates
mitochondrial genomes that have been
completely (Table 1), almost completely
(Jakoba, Naegleria and
Thraustochytrium) or partially (*)
sequenced by the OGMP (red), the FMGP
(black) or other groups (green). Names
in blue indicate those species whose
mtDNAs are currently being sequenced by
the OGMP or are future candidates for
complete sequencing. Amitochondriate
retortamonads are positioned at the
base of the tree, with broken arrows
denoting the endosymbiotic origin(s) of
mitochondria from a Rickettsia-like
eubacterium. Macrophar.,
Macropharyngomonas.
source: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/vol26/issue4/images/gkb18201.gif


[2] Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of
eukaryotes based on ultrastructural and
molecular data. Organisms are
sub-divided into main groups as
discussed in the text. Only a few
representative species for which
complete (or almost complete) mtDNA
sequences are known are shown in each
lineage. In some cases, line drawings
or actual pictures of the organisms are
provided (Acanthamoeba, M. Nagata; URL:
http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/PCD3379
/htmls/21.html; Allomyces, Tom Volk;
URL:
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/332/
Chytridiomycota/Allomyces_r_So_pa/A._arb
uscula_pit._sporangia_tjv.html;
Amoebidium, URL:
http://cgdc3.igmors.upsud.fr/microbiolog
ie/mesomycetozoaires.htm; Marchantia,
URL:
http://www.science.siu.edu/landplants/He
patophyta/images/March.female.JPEG
Scenedesmus, Entwisle et al.,
http://www.rbgsyd.gov.au/_data/page/1824
/Scenedesmus.gif). The color-coding of
the main groups (alternating between
dark and light blue) on the outer
circle corresponds to the color-coding
of the species names. Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
molecular data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional sequence data. [t:
why not color code or add which type of
mito?]
source: http://arjournals.annualreviews.
org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.genet.37.11
0801.142526

1,874,000,000 YBN
10
61) Earliest large filamentous fossil
(Grypania).3 4 Grypania spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be
either a green alga or a large
cyanobacterium.5 6 If eukaryote,
Grypania would be the earliest
eukaryote fossil.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han
and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old
Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan.
Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/257/5067/232

AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877
532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
2. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
3. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/257/5067/232

AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877
532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
4. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
5. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/257/5067/232

AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877
532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
6. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
7. ^ Zhu Shixing
and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the
1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi
Formation in the Jixian Area, North
China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270,
No. 5236 (Oct. 27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/28
88330
{Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
8. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han
and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old
Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan.
Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/257/5067/232

AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877
532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
9. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
10. ^ Schneider
et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E.
Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz and
M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks
and syndepositional iron formations,
Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874
mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Samuelsson, Joakim, Peter R
Dawes, and Gonzalo Vidal.
“Organic-walled Microfossils from the
Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Northwest
Greenland.” Precambrian Research
96.1–2 (1999):
1–23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S0301926898001235

[2] Jacques Dumais, Kyle Serikawa and
Dina F Mandoli, "Acetabularia: A
Unicellular Model for Understanding
Subcellular Localization and
Morphogenesis during Development",
Journal of Plant Growth
Regulation Volume 19, Number 3 (2000),
253-264, DOI:
10.1007/s003440000035 http://www.oeb.ha
rvard.edu/faculty/dumais/Publications/JP
GR2000.2.pdf

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA8
9  

[1]
file:/root/web/Grypania_spiralis_wmel000
0.htm
source: file:/root/web/Grypania_spiralis
_wmel0000.htm


[2]
http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/paleontology
/lrgGrypaniaspiralis.jpg
source: http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/pale
ontology/lrgGrypaniaspiralis.jpg

1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
 
[1] Ted Huntington PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/MichiganBIF.jpg


[2] Ted Huntington PD
source: Ted Huntington

1,570,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These
genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and
animals.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
2. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p425,434.
4. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p425,434.
6. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin
TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with
similarity to PAS domains, is fused to
plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III
proteins.", Plant Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphy
siol.org/content/140/4/1142.full

8. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano
Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin.
“A Comprehensive Classification and
Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/26/12/2775.short
{1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown
algae}
9. ^ Jongmin Nam, Claude W.
dePamphilis, Hong Ma, and Masatoshi
Nei, "Antiquity and Evolution of the
MADS-Box Gene Family Controlling Flower
Development in Plants", Mol Biol Evol
(2003) 20(9): 1435-1447 first published
online May 30, 2003
doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/
20/9/1435.abstract
{1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown
algae}
 
[1] {ULSF: Homeobox genes} Desajustes
en el modelo UNKNOWN
source: http://cnho.files.wordpress.com/
2010/07/hox_genes_illus.png


[2] {ULSF: Homeobox genes} UNKNOWN
source: http://cnho.files.wordpress.com/
2010/07/homeobox1.jpg

1,570,000,000 YBN
7 8
197) The ancestor of all living
eukaryotes divides into bikont and
unikont descendants. Bikonts lead to
all Chromalveolates, Excavates,
Rhizaria, and Plants. Unikonts lead to
all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.4 5 6


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T,
"The root of the eukaryote tree
pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13,
R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http
://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

2. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski,
"A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the
continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
4. ^ Stechmann
A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003,
Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http
://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski,
"A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the
continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
7. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
{problem with 1250 my bangia red algae
fossils)1126 mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1570 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema
E.-Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early
Eukaryote Megaevolution", J Mol Evol
(2003) 56:540 563
[2] J Mol Evol (2003)
56:540 563 Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early
Eukaryote Megaevolution Thomas
Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao
 
[1] Figure 1: Figure 1. Eukaryote
phylogeny integrating ultrastructure,
sequence trees, gene fusions and
molecular cladistic markers. The
unikont topology is established, but
the branching order of the six bikont
groups remains uncertain. The single
enslavement [12] of a red alga (R) to
create chromalveolates is supported by
a plastid glyceraldehyde phosphate
dehydrogenase (GAPDH) replacement [13].
Whether there was a single enslavement
of a green alga (G) to form cabozoa or
two separate enslavements (asterisks)
to form Cercozoa and Excavata is
uncertain [12], as is the position of
Heliozoa [14]. Polyubiquitin [15] and
EF-1α[16] insertions strongly support
the clades core Rhizaria and
opisthokonts. The inset shows the BamHI
restriction fragment from H.
cantabrigiensis that was sequenced and
analysed in this study, spanning the
DHFR and the amino terminus of the TS
gene (red, introns are green). The
length of the noncoding regions
upstream and downstream of the DHFR
gene from one of the clones is
indicated. Figure 1 from: Stechmann
A, Cavalier-Smith T, ''The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.'', 2003,
Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http
://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retriev
e&_eid=1-s2.0-S096098220300602X&_image=1
-s2.0-S096098220300602X-gr1_lrg.jpg&_ba=
&_fmt=full&_orig=na&_issn=09609822&_pii=
S096098220300602X&_isHiQual=Y&_acct=C000
059600&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=
4422&md5=cec46b2161caca87740f4ff34545ab6
9


[2] cavalier-smith diagram COPYRIGHTED

source: cavalier_jmolevol_2003_56_540-56
3.pdf

1,520,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
202) Protists Amoebozoa evolve (amoeba,
slime molds).4 5 Feeding using
pseudopods.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p515.
4. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p515.
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1520 mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1400 my}
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1587mybn)
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1400) {c1220}
11. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c1090}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/biologie/bi
ani/msg/Amoeboids/Amoebozoa/Conosea.html

 
[1] SUBPHYLUM Lobosa CLASS Amoebaea
Chaos diffluens, an amoeba. Photo
released by Dr. Ralf Wagner.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chaos_diffluens.jpg


[2] CLASS Amoebaea Mayorella (may-or
-ell-a) a medium sized free-living
naked amoeba with conical pseudopodia.
Central body is the nucleus. Phase
contrast. This picture was taken by
David Patterson of material from
Limulus-ridden sediments at Plum Island
(Massachusetts USA) in spring and
summer, 2001. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
515

1,520,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7
203) Colonialism (where cells form a
colony1 ) evolves for the first time in
Eukaryotes.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colonial." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
2. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080
mybn}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080
mybn}
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{1956 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1999 mybn}
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
7. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang,
Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little,
"Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with
a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
(1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Bior
ealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] [t Note that this Chrysophytes
{golden algae} do not evolve
genetically until much later - but I
can't find colonial euglinas or
kinetoplasts- dinobryon look very
similar to euglenas however, even with
a red eyespot- which implies a close
relation.] [1] Dinobryon, a colony of
Chrysophytes showing flagella and red
eyespots UNKNOWN
source: http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/
mag//imagsmall/Dinobryonb.jpg


[2] [t Note that this CHrysophytes
{golden algae} do not evolve
genetically until much later - but I
can't find colonial euglinas or
kinetoplasts] [2] golden algae colony
(synura) Scanning EM showing the
colony of cells covered with scales By
Joel Mancuso UNKNOWN
source: http://farm1.staticflickr.com/38
/110623789_7d189c795b_b.jpg

1,500,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
15) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria
form plastids (chloroplasts) through
symbiosis, within a eukaryote cell
(endosymbiosis). Like mitochondria,
these organelles copy themselves and
are not made by the cell DNA.3

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1300 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {c1600 my}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).,
see comments {1576 MYBN}
9. ^ Knoll A,
Summons R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J,
"The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p152. {no later than)
1200 my}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin
and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see
comments {1576 MYBN} {needs to be at
least as old as Euglenozoa since many
have plastids)1956} {Euglenozoa)1956}

MORE INFO
[1] "Plastid". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastid
[2] Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

 
[1] Description Plagiomnium
affine, Laminazellen, Rostock Date
created 01.11.2006 Source
photographed by myself Author
Kristian Peters --
Fabelfroh Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Plagiomnium_affine_la
minazellen.jpeg

1,500,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
86) First plant (ancestor of all green
and red algae and land plants).11 12 13
14 15

This begins the plant kingdom. This
first plant is unicellular.16 17 18 19
20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel
Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences
from picoplankton reveal unsuspected
eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
4. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/abs/nrg929.html

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel
Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences
from picoplankton reveal unsuspected
eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
9. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/abs/nrg929.html

11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
13. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel
Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences
from picoplankton reveal unsuspected
eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
14. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003).
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/abs/nrg929.html

16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel
Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences
from picoplankton reveal unsuspected
eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
19. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003).
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/abs/nrg929.html

21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1500)
22. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {first plastid) 1300mybn}
23. ^ Hackett JD,
Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{first plastid) c1600}
24. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1550 mybn}
25. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2
(1609 mybn)
26. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{1580} http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html

27. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han
and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old
Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan.
Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf {fossil Grypania) 1874my}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema
E. -Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early
Eukaryote Megaevolution", Springer New
York,
(2003). file:///home/ted/ulsf/docs/cav-
smith_apusozoa_fulltext.html
 
[1] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
3/PCD3711/htmls/86.html


[2] (See Image) COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1500)

1,500,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of
Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).3
4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1380 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1400mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1600 mybn}
9. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{960 mybn}
 
[1] Parasite spore, SEM Z115/0073
Rights Managed Credit: EYE OF
SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Parasite spore.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a microsporidian (Tubulinosema
ratisbonensis) spore cultured on human
lung fibroblast cells (brown).
Microsporidia are single-celled
parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a
parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), but may also be able to
infect humans with weakened immune
systems. The spore is the infective
phase of the life cycle. It is excreted
by the old host and enters the gut of a
new host. The contents of the spore,
the sporoplasm, is injected into the
host's cell via the polar tubule. Once
in the cell the organism divides many
times with the resultant organisms
producing more spores. Magnification:
x10,000 at 10 centimetres
wide. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/365473/large/Z1150073-Parasite_spore,_
SEM-SPL.jpg


[2] Parasite spore, SEM Z115/0073
Rights Managed Credit: EYE OF
SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Parasite spore.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a microsporidian (Tubulinosema
ratisbonensis) spore cultured on human
lung fibroblast cells (brown).
Microsporidia are single-celled
parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a
parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), but may also be able to
infect humans with weakened immune
systems. The spore is the infective
phase of the life cycle. It is excreted
by the old host and enters the gut of a
new host. The contents of the spore,
the sporoplasm, is injected into the
host's cell via the polar tubule. Once
in the cell the organism divides many
times with the resultant organisms
producing more spores. Magnification:
x10,000 at 10 centimetres
wide. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/365473/large/Z1150073-Parasite_spore,_
SEM-SPL.jpg

1,400,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
209) Plant Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu5 }.6
7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glauco
phytes&submit=Submit

2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glauco
phytes&submit=Submit

6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400)
10. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119.
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150
mybn}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1290 mybn}
13. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1225 mybn}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1500my)
15. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (1558my)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P6064

 
[1] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
3/PCD3711/htmls/86.html


[2] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
/Images/Others/Glaucocystis/

1,300,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
188) Plants Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu6 }
evolve, Green Algae: (ancestor of
Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and
Stoneworts).7 8 9 10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Daniel
S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1
Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence
for the Early Colonization of Land by
Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 -
1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
4. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record
2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
5. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/
greenalgae.html

6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chloro
phyta&submit=Submit

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Daniel
S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1
Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence
for the Early Colonization of Land by
Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 -
1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
10. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record
2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
11. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/
greenalgae.html

12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
13. ^ "algae."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/14828/algae
>.
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150
mybn}
15. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450mybn}
16. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (968mybn)
17. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1
David M. Geiser,2 Brooke R. Eidell,1
Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L.
Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for the
Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and
Plants", Science 10 August 2001: Vol.
293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001).
(1061?)
18. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record
2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b (1650-800mybn)
19. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/
greenalgae.html
(1000my)
20. ^ Herman N,
"Organic World One Billion Years Ago",
Nauka, Leningrad, 1990.
21. ^ Knoll A,
Summons R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J,
"The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p150.
 
[1] Description Flagellar pit of
Pyramimonas sp. / from Nigaku-Ike of
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
Pref., Japan / SEM:JEOL JSM-6330F /
scale bar = 1.0μm Date 2009-05-04
18:30 (UTC) Source
Pyramimonas_sp.jpg Author
Pyramimonas_sp.jpg: ja:User:NEON /
User:NEON_ja derivative work:
Addicted04 (talk) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cb/Pyramimonas_sp_color.
jpg


[2] Micrograph of Volvox aureus.
Copyright held by Dr. Ralf Wagner,
uploaded to German Wikipedia under
GFDL. Permission is granted to copy,
distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no
Back-Cover Texts. Subject to
disclaimers.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vol
vox

1,300,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
219) Plant Red Algae evolves
(Rhodophyta {rODOFITu4 }).5 6

FOOTNOTES

1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodop
hyta&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodop
hyta&submit=Submit

5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1450 mybn}
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1428mybn)
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] Close-up of a red alga (Genus?
Laurencia), Class Florideophyceae,
Order=? a marine seaweed from Hawaii.
GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Laurencia.jpg


[2] Bangia atropurpurea Profile:
unbranched filaments in tufts. Often
forming dense fringes in the spalsh
zone. Uniseriate at base, multiseriate
above with protoplasts separate in a
firm gelatinous sheath. Stellate
chloroplasts. US NOAA PD
source: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagra
nt/GLWL/Algae/Rhodophyta/Cards/Bangia.ht
ml

1,300,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
323) Protists Excavates: includes
Parabasalids {PaRu-BAS-a-liDS5 }, and
Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ6 } {like
Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u7 }).8 9 10

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardi
a&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=paraba
salid&submit=Submit

6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplom
onads&submit=Submit

7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardi
a&submit=Submit

8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
11. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1300 mybn}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {2000 my}
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{2291} {2291 my}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600}
{1600 my}
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{2230} {2230 my}
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1594 my}
17. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{1030 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Heterokonts". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterokonts

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
 
[1] A timescale of eukaryote evolution.
The times for each node are taken from
the summary times in Table 1, except
for nodes 1 (310 Ma), 2 (360 Ma), 3
(450 Ma), and 4 (520 Ma), which are
from the fossil record [25]; nodes 8
(1450 Ma) and 16 (1587 Ma) are
phylogenetically constrained and are
the midpoints between adjacent nodes.
Nodes 12–14 were similar in time and
therefore shown as a multifurcation at
1000 Ma; likewise, nodes 21–22 are
shown as a multifurcation at 1967 Ma.
The star indicates the occurrence of
red algae in the fossil record at 1200
Ma, the oldest taxonomically
identifiable eukaryote [12]. Hedges
et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004
4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-2-2.jpg


[2] Giardia lamblia, a parasitic
flagellate that causes giardiasis.
Image from public domain source at
http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/releases/i
mages/para.jpg
source: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/re
leases/images/para.jpg

1,280,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in
Eukaryotes evolves.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
2. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf
3. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
4. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf
5. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
6. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf
7. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905
{Bangia) 1250 mybn}
10. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
11. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874
mybn} {Grypania)1874 mybn}
12. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874
mybn}
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2009, p517.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
(c850my)
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1351my)
[3] Ted huntington, Estimate based on
origin of brown algae around
1,973,000,000
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting
Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
Canada7  

[1] Bodanella (bow-dan-ell-a)
lauterbornii, a branching filamentous
brown alga. Nearly all brown algae are
marine organisms, but this species is
found in the bottoms of freshwater
lakes. Bright field. data on this
strain. This image is of material
from Provasoli-Guillard National Center
for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton,
images taken by David Patterson and Bob
Andersen. Image copyright: Bob Andersen
and D. J. Patterson, image used under
license to MBL
(micro*scope). NONCOMMERCIAL USE ONLY
source: http://starcentral.mbl.edu/msr/r
awdata/files/bodonella_bgz.zip


[2] Bodanella (bow-dan-ell-a)
lauterbornii, a branching filamentous
brown alga. Nearly all brown algae are
marine organisms, but this species is
found in the bottoms of freshwater
lakes. Bright field. data on this
strain. This image is of material
from Provasoli-Guillard National Center
for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton,
images taken by David Patterson and Bob
Andersen. Image copyright: Bob Andersen
and D. J. Patterson, image used under
license to MBL
(micro*scope). NONCOMMERCIAL USE ONLY
source: http://starcentral.mbl.edu/msr/r
awdata/viewable/bodonella_bgw.jpg

1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
85) Differentiation in multicellular
eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells,
somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing).
Start of death by aging.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cell differentiation."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differ
entiation

2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905
{Bangia) 1250 mybn}
3. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A
bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905
{Bangia) 1250 mybn}
 
[1] Volvoxcell differentiation. The
pathways leading to germ cells or
somatic cells are controlled by genes
that cause cells to follow one or the
other fate. Mutations can prevent the
formation of one of these lineages.
http://www.devbio.com/chap02/link0204.sh
tml Although all the volvocaceans,
like their unicellular relative
Chlamydomonas, reproduce predominantly
by asexual means, they are also capable
of sexual reproduction, which involves
the production and fusion of haploid
gametes. In many species of
Chlamydomonas, including the one
illustrated in Figure 2.10, sexual
reproduction is isogamous (“the same
gametes”), since the haploid gametes
that meet are similar in size,
structure, and motility. However, in
other species of Chlamydomonas—as
well as many species of colonial
volvocaceans—swimming gametes of very
different sizes are produced by the
different mating types. This pattern is
called heterogamy (“different
gametes”). But the larger
volvocaceans have evolved a specialized
form of heterogamy, called oogamy,
which involves the production of large,
relatively immotile eggs by one mating
type and small, motile sperm by the
other (see Sidelights and
Speculations) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/book
s/NBK10031/bin/ch2f12.jpg


[2] Description English: Four
Different Species of Volvocales Algae.
(A) Gonium pectorale, (B) Eudorina
elegans, (C) Pleodorina californica,
and (D) Volvox carteri. These are
unicellular organisms that live in
colonies and have both large and small
gametes. Date Published: June 15,
2004 Source Whitfield J:
Everything You Always Wanted to Know
about Sexes. PLoS Biol 2/6/2004: e183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0
020183 Author Photo courtesy of
Aurora M. Nedelcu, from the Volvocales
Information Project
(http://www.unbf.ca/vip/index.htm). Per
mission (Reusing this file) See
below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c5/Volvocales.png

1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -80mybn
guess}
 
[1] Mitosis divides genetic information
during cell division Source:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer
/genetics_cell.html This image is
from the Science Primer, a work of the
National Center for Biotechnology
Information, part of the National
Institutes of Health. As a work of the
U.S. federal government, the image is
in the public domain.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mit
osis


[2] Prophase: The two round objects
above the nucleus are the centrosomes.
Note the condensed chromatin. from
Gray's Anatomy. Unless stated
otherwise, it is from the online
edition of the 20th U.S. edition of
Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body,
originally published in 1918. Online
editions can be found on Bartleby and
also on Yahoo!
source: UNKNOWN

1,280,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis
occurs in both haploid and diploid life
stages).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ John Ringo,
"Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
3. ^ Ted
Huntington.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905


MORE INFO
[1] Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life
cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=X
sgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10

 
[1] Drawn by self for Biological life
cycle Based on Freeman & Worth's
Biology of Plants (p. 171). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Sporic_meiosis.png


[2] Drawn by self for Biological life
cycle Based on Freeman & Worth's
Biology of Plants (p. 171). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Sporic_meiosis.png

1,274,000,000 YBN
7 8
187) A captured red alga, through
endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.3 4 5


This is a secondary plastid
endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is
captured instead of a cyanobacterium.6


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS.
“Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear
Genome Miniaturization and
Expansion.” Annals of Botany 95.1
(2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/95/1/147.short

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS.
“Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear
Genome Miniaturization and
Expansion.” Annals of Botany 95.1
(2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/95/1/147.short

5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
7. ^
Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{1274 mybn}
8. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {1280mybn}
 
[1] Fig. 2. The tree of life based
on molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae—a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red). COPYRIGHTED
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/95/1/147/F2.large.jpg


[2] Figure 3: Fig. 3. Schematic
representation of the evolutionary
relationships and divergence times for
the red, green, glaucophyte, and
chromist algae. These photosynthetic
groups are outgroup-rooted with the
Opisthokonta which putatively
ancestrally lacked a plastid. The
branches on which the cyanobacterial
(CB) primary and red algal chromist
secondary endosymbioses occurred are
shown Figure 3 from: Yoon, Hwan Su
et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5
(2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract COPYRIGHTED
source: http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809/F3.large.jpg

1,250,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19 20
88) Protists "Chromalveolates"
{KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS8 } (ancestor of
Chromista {Cryptophytes, Haptophytes
and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ9
}} and Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS10 }).11
12 13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chroma
lveolates&submit=Submit

2. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=st
ramenopiles

3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=al
veolates&submit=Submit

4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p540.
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full

7. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots
of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703
-1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/300/5626/1703.short

8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chroma
lveolates&submit=Submit

9. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=st
ramenopiles

10. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=al
veolates&submit=Submit

11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2

12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p540.
13. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full

14. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots
of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703
-1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/300/5626/1703.short

15. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{c1250 mybn}
16. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1300 mybn}
17. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1665 mybn}
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2
(1973mybn)
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1600mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Brown alga". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_alga
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/290/5493/972.full
has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa
branch
 
[1] S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
''The TimeTree of Life'', 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.timetree.org/book.php


[2] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
''Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.'', in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
''Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.'', Elsevier; 2007, p120.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120.

1,250,000,000 YBN
9
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils
and eukaryote filamentous
multicellularity: Rhodophyta (red
algae) fossils.4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

2. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3
(September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?r
equest=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.C
O%3B2

3. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer,
Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of
Primary Producers in the Oceans", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
4. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A
bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

5. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3
(September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?r
equest=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.C
O%3B2

6. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer,
Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of
Primary Producers in the Oceans", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
7. ^ Science
1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red
alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada. Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
8. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3
(September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?r
equest=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.C
O%3B2

9. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science
250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
{1250 mybn}
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island,
arctic Canada7 8  

[1] Figure 4 from: Science 1990 vol
250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from
the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.
Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877
905


[2] Figure 2 from: Science 1990 vol
250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from
the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.
Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877
905

1,200,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11
221) First fungi. This begins the Fungi
Kingdom.5 6

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic
(cannot photosynthesize) and so must
feed on other living things.7

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf}
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1200 mybn}
9. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1368 mybn}
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2
(1513mybn) {1513 mybn}
11. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (c1200) {c1100} {c1100 mybn}
 
[1] Microsporidia. Image from Sterling
Parasitology Microsporidia
Research. UNKNOWN
source: http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/im
ages/3/37/Micro2.jpg


[2] Penicillium [t Note: Penecillium
is a multicellular fungi.] UNKNOWN
source: http://www.mold-help.org/pages/i
mages/Penicillium.jpg

1,180,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS6
} (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates
{DInOFlaJeleTS7 }).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=al
veolates&submit=Submit

2. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagell
ate

3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471
-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=al
veolates&submit=Submit

7. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagell
ate

8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
10. ^ Brusca and
Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second
Edition, 2003, p135.
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1180 mybn}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1480 my}
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956 my}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1345 my}
15. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux,
Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{1000 my}
16. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c820 my}
17. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1628}
 
[1]
Unknown http://www.genome.gov/Images/pr
ess_photos/highres/85-300.jpg PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Oxytricha_trifa
llax.jpg/1024px-Oxytricha_trifallax.jpg


[2] Description English: Unknown
species of cilliate in the last stages
of mitosis (cytokinesis), with cleavage
furrow visible. Date Source
Own work Author
TheAlphaWolf CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/55/Unk.cilliate.jpg

1,100,000,000 YBN
5 6
75) Oldest extant fungi phylum
"Microsporidia".3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (>1460mybn)
6. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (c1100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=93911

[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/290/5493/972.full

 
[1] Sporoblast of the Microsporidium
Fibrillanosema crangonycis. Electron
micrograph taken by Leon White. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Fibrillanosema_spore.jpg


[2] Spironema
multiciliatum Spironema:
Octosporoblastic sporogony producing
horseshoe-shaped monokaryotic spores in
sporophorous vesicles; monomorphic,
diplokaryotic and monokaryotic;
merogony - last generation merozoites
are diplokaryotic; sporogony - initial
division of the sporont nuclei is
meiotic as indicated by the occurrence
of synaptonemal complexes; spores are
horse-shoe-shaped, with swollen ends in
T. variabilis and have one elongate
nucleus; exospore with three layers,
endospore is of medium thickness;
polaroplast composed of two lamellar
parts, an anterior part of closely
packed lamellae and a posterior part of
wider compartments; polar tube is
isofilar and forms, in the posterior
quarter of the spore, 3-4 coils in a
single rank (T. variabilis) or 8-10
coils in a single rank (T. chironomi);
type species Toxoglugea vibrio in
adipose tissue of larvae of Ceratopogon
sp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).
Spironema (spire-oh-knee-ma)
multiciliatum Klebs, 1893. Cells are
lanceolate, relatively flattened and
flexible. The cells have a spiral
groove, long kinetics and a tail, which
tapers posteriorly, and are about 15 -
21 microns without the tail. The
nucleus is located anteriorly or near
the centre of the cell. When the cells
are squashed, the cells are more
flexible. Food materials are seen under
the cell surface. Rarely observed.
This picture was taken by Won Je Lee
using conventional photographic film
using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope of
material collected in marine sediments
of Botany Bay (Sydney, Australia). The
image description refers to material
from Botany Bay. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
3928

1,100,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
313) Protists "Dinoflagellata"
(Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS5
}).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinofl
agellates&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinofl
agellates&submit=Submit

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
8. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H.
Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing
and Interpreting the Fossils of Early
Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and
Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33,
Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{Dinosterane molecular
fossils)1100 my}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{DNA)1040 mybn}
11. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J.
Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen,
"Eukaryotic Organisms in Proterozoic
Oceans", Philosophical Transactions:
Biological Sciences , Vol. 361, No.
1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution:
Palaeontological, Molecular and
Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and
Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
0209698
{1.8 bybn} {Dinosterane
molecular fossils)1100 my}
12. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{940 mybn}
13. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{430 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Sandra L.
Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert,
W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level
Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on
Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol
290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and
apicomplexa branch (1600mybn)
[3] Pratt, L. M.,
Summons, R. E. and Hieshima, G. B.:
1991, Sterane and Triterpane Biomarkers
in the Precambrian Nonesuch Formation,
North American Midcontinent Rift,
Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 911–916
[4] J.J.
Brocks, R.E. Summons, 8.03 -
Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers
for Early Life, In: Editors-in-Chief:
Heinrich D. Holland and Karl K.
Turekian, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Treatise
on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford,
2003, Pages 63-115, ISBN 9780080437514,
10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/08127-5. (http:/
/www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/p
ii/B0080437516081275)

[5] Moldowan, J. Michael et al.
“Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of
biofacies: Molecular evidence linking
cyst-forming dinoflagellates with
pre-Triassic ancestors.” Geology 24.2
(1996): 159 -162.
http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/con
tent/24/2/159.abstract

AND http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/
24/2/159.full.pdf
[6] Raven, Evert, Eichhorn, "Biology of
Plants", (New York: Worth Publishers,
1992). p98-99
[7] "coenocyte." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coenocyte
 
[1] Dinoflagellate Ceratium
sp. Phylum Dinoflagellata Upper
Newport Bay, Orange County, CA.
9/22/12. © Peter J.
Bryant COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Din
oflagellates/DSC_6886b.jpg


[2] Model of Pyrodinium bahamense, a
dinoflagellate species, in the American
Museum of Natural History Credit:
Life’s Little Mysteries Fire
water Have you ever seen glowing ocean
water, like the bright blue surf
pictured in the intro slide? The neon
water is brimming with dinoflagellates,
single-celled plankton with tails that
slosh around together in vast numbers.
These creatures have been highlighting
Earth’s coastlines for 1.2 billion
years, and for the past few millennia,
they’ve puzzled humans, who used to
attribute the glow of some ocean water
to magic or the gods.Dinoflagellates
still puzzle us; we know how they glow,
but not why. They might have evolved
bioluminescence as a way of frightening
predators, or to reveal those
predators’ locations by flashing when
touched. Alternatively, their
bioluminescence may just be a fancy way
of ridding themselves of oxygen
radicals (because the chemical reaction
requires oxygen). Whatever the answer,
they certainly make for a nice holiday
in the Bahamas. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.
com/images/i/1651/original/dinoflagellat
e.jpg

1,080,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15
87) Excavate Discicristates
{DiSKIKriSTATS}, ancestor of protists
which have mitochondria with discoidal
shaped cristae (includes euglenids,
leishmanias {lEsmaNEuZ4 }, trypanosomes
{TriPaNiSOMZ5 }, and acrasid {oKrASiD6
} slime molds).7 8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science, (1996).
4. ^ "leishmanias."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/l
eishmanias>.
5. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun.
2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/t
rypanosome>.
6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ac
rasiomycetes&submit=Submit

7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
9. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science, (1996).
10. ^ Baldauf, "An overview of
the phylogeny and diversity of
eukaryotes", Journal of Systematics and
Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com
/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf

11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080
mybn}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{1956 mybn}
13. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1999 mybn}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
15. ^ Russell
F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang,
Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little,
"Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with
a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
(1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Bior
ealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] euglena
source: http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/Stratf
ordLandingES/Ecology/mpages/euglena.htm


[2] euglena
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
/Images/Mastigophora/Euglena/genus1L.jpg

1,080,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first
three-dimensional response to light.7 8
9

The earliest eye probably evolves from
a plastid in a unicellular eukaryote.10
11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/L
abs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

3. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy,
Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome
Miniaturization and Expansion", *
Oxford Journals * Life Sciences
* Annals of Botany * Volume 95,
Number 1 *, (2005).
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/
95/1/147.abstract

4. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

5. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/L
abs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

6. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy,
Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome
Miniaturization and Expansion", *
Oxford Journals * Life Sciences
* Annals of Botany * Volume 95,
Number 1 *, (2005).
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/
95/1/147.abstract

7. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

8. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/L
abs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

9. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy,
Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome
Miniaturization and Expansion", *
Oxford Journals * Life Sciences
* Annals of Botany * Volume 95,
Number 1 *, (2005).
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/
95/1/147.abstract

10. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/L
abs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

11. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy,
Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome
Miniaturization and Expansion", *
Oxford Journals * Life Sciences
* Annals of Botany * Volume 95,
Number 1 *, (2005).
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/
95/1/147.abstract

12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
13. ^ Yoon, Hwan
Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{guess based on
earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and
euglena at 1410 mybn}
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{guess based on earliest secondary
plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410
mybn}
15. ^ my own estimate based on where
euglenozoa genetically appear to evolve
{guess based on earliest secondary
plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410
mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Peter Hegemann, "Algal
Sensory Photoreceptors", Annual Review
of Plant Biology, Vol. 59: 167 -189
(Volume publication date June 2008)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/
10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092847
%40recept.2009.1.issue-1

[2] Trevor D. Lamb, Detlev Arendt, and
Shaun P. Collin, "The evolution of
phototransduction and eyes", Phil.
Trans. R. Soc. B October 12, 2009
364:2791-2793;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0106 http://rstb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1
531/2791.full

[3] Kreimer, G. (2009) The green algal
eyespot apparatus: a primordial visual
system and more? Current Genetics
55:19-43 doi:10.007/s00294-008-0224-8
PMID
19107486 http://www.springerlink.com/co
ntent/v54v124mxg52r091/

 
[1] Adapted from: Euglena is a
photosynthetic euglenoid with at least
150 described species. The cells are
cylindrical with a rounded anterior and
tapered posterior. The chloroplasts are
well-developed, bright green, and
sometimes have pyrenoids. ... Euglena
is a photosynthetic euglenoid with at
least 150 described species. The cells
are cylindrical with a rounded anterior
and tapered posterior. The chloroplasts
are well-developed, bright green, and
sometimes have pyrenoids. They are
often discoidal in shape but can also
be ovate, lobate, elongate, U-shaped,
or ribbon-shaped. Some researchers use
the structure and position of the
chloroplasts to divide the group into
three subgenera. Even though they are
able to photosynthesize, Euglena cells
also have a phagotrophic ingestion
apparatus. Euglena has one long,
protruding flagellum and a shorter
flagellum that is not usually
visible. The euglenoids can glide
and swim using their flagella, or can
ooze along a substrate with an
undulating, shape-changing, contraction
motion called metaboly. The cytoplasm
of Euglena and other euglenoids
contains many paramylon starch storage
granules. The euglenoid cells are
covered by a pellicle composed of
ribbonlike, woven strips of
proteinaceous material that cover the
cell in a helical arrangement from apex
to posterior. Freshwater euglenoids
have a contractile vacuole. Euglenoids
sense light using a red pigmented
eyespot or stigma and the paraflagellar
body located at the base of the
emergent flagella. The cytoplasm of
Euglena and other euglenoids contains
many paramylon starch storage granules.
The euglenoid cells are covered by a
pellicle composed of ribbonlike, woven
strips of proteinaceous material that
cover the cell in a helical arrangement
from apex to posterior. Freshwater
euglenoids have a contractile vacuole.
Euglenoids sense light using a red
pigmented eyespot or stigma and the
paraflagellar body located at the base
of the emergent flagella. UNKNOWN
source: http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll
.edu/Pics/Other%20Algae/Other_jpegs/Eugl
ena_Key225.jpg


[2] Figure 1. The distribution of
three-dimensional phototaxis in the
tree of eukaryotes. Red arrows indicate
the likely point of origin of
phototaxis in a given group. Question
marks indicate uncertainties regarding
independent or common origin. Figure
1 from: Jékely, Gáspár. ''Evolution
of phototaxis.'' Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/364/1531/2795/F1.large.jp
g

1,050,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
169) Protists Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ5 } (also called
Heterokonts) (ancestor of all brown and
golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota
{Ou-mI-KO-Tu6 )).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=st
ramenopiles

2. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oo
mycota&submit=Submit

3. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

5. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=st
ramenopiles

6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oo
mycota&submit=Submit

7. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

9. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{1050 mybn}
10. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1180 mybn}
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1480my}
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1345 my}
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956my} {Alveolates and Plant
split)1956my}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1600 my}
{Chromalveolates)1600 my}
15. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
{c775my} {c754my}
16. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux,
Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{c1000my}
17. ^ Emmanuel J. P.
Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé
Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular
clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October
26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{872 my}
 
[1] Phylum Stramenopiles COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.


[2] S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
''The TimeTree of Life'', 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.timetree.org/book.php

1,000,000,000 YBN
5
324) Protists Mesomycetozoea
{me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u3 } (also called
DRIPS).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomy
cetozoea&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomy
cetozoea&submit=Submit

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {1000 MYBN (end
of Mesoproterozoic}

MORE INFO
[1] Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge
MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, et al.
2008 Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa
and the Origin of Animals. PLoS ONE
3(5): e2098.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
[2] Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, and
Libero Ajello, "THE CLASS
MESOMYCETOZOEA: A Heterogeneous Group
of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungal
Boundary", Annual Review of
Microbiology October 2002, Vol. 56:
315-344. http://www.annualreviews.org/d
oi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.
160950

 
[1] Ichthyophonus, a fungus-like
protistan that occurs in high
prevalence in Pacific Ocean perch
(Sebastes aultus) and yellowtail
rockfish (Sebastes flavedus). Note the
parasite forms branching hyphae-like
structures. Ichthyophonus hoferi has
caused massive mortalities in herring
in the Atlantic ocean, and has recently
been reported to cause disease in wild
Pacific herring from Washington through
Alaska. COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://oregonstate.edu/dept/salm
on/projects/images/16Ichthyophonus.jpg


[2] Microscopic appearence of the
organism is dependent on its stage of
development. The stages include (1)
spore at ''resting'' stage, (2)
germinating spore, (3) hyphal
stage. It is believed that there are
two forms of Ichthyophonus, both
belonging to one genus. One of them is
known as the ''salmon'' form, occuring
in freshwater and cold-preferring sea
fishes: this form is characterized by
its ability to produce long tubulose
germ hyphae. The other is called the
''aquarium fish'' form, typical of the
tropical freshwater fishes. This form
is completely devoid of hyphae.
Developmental cycle of Ichthyophonus
hoferi: 1-5 - development of
''daughter'' spores, 7-11 - development
of resting spore from the ''daughter''
spore, 12-19 - development of resting
spore by fragmentation. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/
003/AC160E/AC160E02.htm

985,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
309) Protists Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu6 }
(Water molds).7 8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomyco
ta&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full

5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomyco
ta&submit=Submit

7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
9. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
10. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{985}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Term
s/coeno128.html#coeno128

[2] "Coenocyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenocyte
[3]
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultrane
t/BiologyPages/P/Protists.html#Water_Mol
ds

[4]
http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1
116/16protists.htm

 
[1] Figure 2 from: Sandra L. Baldauf,
A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, ''A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data'', Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full Figure 2 Single-gene
phylogenies support subsets of the
combined protein tree. (A) A summary of
the tree in Fig. 1is shown with
supergroups indicated beside brackets
to the right. Multi-taxon represented
clusters are given as triangles, with
height proportional to number of taxa
and width proportional to averaged
overall branch length (1) compensated
for missing data (47). (B) Published
support for the numbered nodes in (A)
is shown for commonly used molecular
phylogenetic markers grouped as (a)
ribosomal RNAs, (b) proteins not used
in the current analysis, (c) proteins
used in the current analysis, and (d)
the combined data (Fig. 1). These
markers are, from left to right, SSU
[SSU rRNA (1–4)], LSU [LSU rRNA
(19)], LSU+SSU [combined LSU and SSU
rRNA (48)], EF-2 (10), V/A-ATPases
[vacuolar ATPases (49)], HSP70-cy
[cytosolic 70-kD heat shock protein
(50)], mito [combined mitochondrial
proteins (51)], RPB1 (52), actin (8,
16, 53), α-tubulin (8, 54), β-tubulin
(8, 54), EF-1α (15, 20), and combined
(Fig. 1). Rejected nodes are indicated
in pink and accepted nodes in green,
with checked circles indicating BP < 70% and solid circles indicating BP >
70%. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/290/5493/972/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

900,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u3 }
(ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rh
izaria&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rh
izaria&submit=Submit

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Medlin, L. , Kooistra, W.
, Potter, D. , Saanders, G. and
Wandersen, R. (1997): Phylogenetic
relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes)
and their plastids , The origin of the
algae and their plastids (D
Bhattacharya, ed ) Plant systematics
and evolution (Suppl
) http://epic.awi.de/2100/
AND http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.
pdf {900 my}
6. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_
a=rhizaria&taxon_b=haptophyta&submit=Sea
rch
{900 my}
7. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my} {754 my}
8. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {1600 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Moreira D, von der Heyden S,
Bass D, López-García P, Chao E,
Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global
eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small-
and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees
support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria
and Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
44 (1): 255–66.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retriev
e/pii/S1055-7903(06)00433-7

[2]
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_
a=rhizaria&taxon_b=alveolates&submit=Sea
rch

[3] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
 
[1] Figure : Maximum likelihood
phylogeny of Rhizaria inferred from SSU
rRNA gene sequences using the GTR+G+I
model of evolution. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.unige.ch/sciences/bio
logie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Rhizaria_large
.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Keeling, Patrick
J. et al. “The tree of eukaryotes.”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20.12
(2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534705003046
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/1-s2.0-S016953470500304
6-gr1.jpg/0?wchp=dGLbVBA-zSkWz

850,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
224) Fungi "Zygomycota" (bread molds,
pin molds).5 6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Daniel
S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1
Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence
for the Early Colonization of Land by
Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 -
1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Daniel
S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1
Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence
for the Early Colonization of Land by
Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 -
1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1250mybn)
10. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M.
Geiser,2 Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca
L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos,
"Molecular Evidence for the Early
Colonization of Land by Fungi and
Plants", Science 10 August 2001: Vol.
293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001).
(1107mybn)
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003). (1107mybn)
12. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c850m)
 
[1] Figure 2. Zygomycota A: sporangia
of Mucor sp. B: whorl of sporangia of
Absidia sp. C: zygospore of
Zygorhynchus sp. D: sporangiophore and
sporangiola of Cunninghamella sp.
source: http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/Re
searchLabs/MallochLab/Malloch/Moulds/Cla
ssification.html


[2] Figure 3. Syncephalis, a member of
the Zygomycota parasitic on other
Zygomycota
source: http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/Re
searchLabs/MallochLab/Malloch/Moulds/Cla
ssification.html

767,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
312) Protists Ciliates (paramecium).4 5
6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
7. ^
Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll
and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early
Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and
Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33,
Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{750 my}
8. ^ Emmanuel J. P.
Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé
Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular
clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October
26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
9. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf,
A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full
has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
 
[1] Paramecium protozoan,
SEM C001/0068 Rights Managed Credit:
STEVE GSCHMEISSNER/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Paramecium protozoan,
coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM). Paramecia are a group of
unicellular ciliate protozoa. They
inhabit fresh water, and feed mainly on
bacteria and smaller protozoa.
Paramecia range from about 50 to 350
micrometres in length, depending on
species. Simple cilia, which cover the
body, are moved in a synchronous motion
to allow the cell to move.
Magnification: x825 when printed at 10
centimetres wide. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nonlocal.com/hbar/par
amecium.gif


[2] Summary Description English:
Scanning electron microscope view of
Oxytricha trifallax Español: Imagen
de microscopía electrónica de barrido
de Oxytricha trifallax Date Unknown
date Source http://www.genome.gov/I
mages/press_photos/highres/85-300.jpg
Author Unknown Permission (Reusin
g this file) See below. PD [1] Fig.
1. A consensus phylogeny of eukaryotes.
The vast majority of characterized
eukaryotes, with the notable exception
of major subgroups of amoebae, can now
be assigned to one of eight major
groups. Opisthokonts (basal flagellum)
have a single basal flagellum on
reproductive cells and flat
mitochondrial cristae (most eukaryotes
have tubular ones). Eukaryotic
photosynthesis originated in Plants;
theirs are the only plastids with just
two outer membranes. Heterokonts
(different flagellae) have a unique
flagellum decorated with hollow
tripartite hairs (stramenopiles) and,
usually, a second plain one. Cercozoans
are amoebae with filose pseudopodia,
often living with in tests (hard outer
shells), some very elaborate
(foraminiferans). Amoebozoa are mostly
naked amoebae (lacking tests), often
with lobose pseudopodia for at least
part of their life cycle. Alveolates
have systems of cortical alveoli
directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Oxytricha_trifa
llax.jpg/1024px-Oxytricha_trifallax.jpg

767,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
314) Protists "Apicomplexa"
{a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su5 } (Malaria).6 7 8

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicom
plexa&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicom
plexa&submit=Submit

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
9. ^
Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A.
Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric
Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a
relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
10. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}
11. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting
the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes",
Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94,
DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{api+dino and ciliate
split)1100 my}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135
 
[1] Description A thin-film Giemsa
stained micrograph of ring-forms, and
gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum.
From
http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/home.asp Date
2006-11-16 (original upload
date) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
TimVickers at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3c/Plasmodium.jpg


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

680,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
326) Protists "Choanoflagellates"
{KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS8 }.9 10 11 12 13
14 Choanoflagellates are the closest
relatives to the animals and may be
direct ancestors of sponges.15

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choano
flagellate&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=114293

4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano)
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choano
flagellate&submit=Submit

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=114293

11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano)
15. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p502.
16. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000 drips and 900
choano) {900 MYBN}
18. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{900 MYBN}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1020 mybn}
20. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano) {1450
mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting
a Tree", Science, (2003)
[2] "Ichthyosporea".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthy
osporea

 
[1] Choanoflagellate single cell
(thecate) UNKNOWN
source: http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/prof
iles22/483113/projects/1558429/6ea555ab5
457e21432def0f2e6b83fe3.jpg


[2] Salpingoeca: Cells solitary or
colonial with a distinct and firm
sheath or theca usually as a cup either
sessile or with a pedicel; theca
colourless or amber; contractile
vacuoles posterior in freshwater
specie; in freshwater, brackish, and
marine habitats. Record information:
Salpingoeca (sal-ping-go-eek-a), a
collar flagellate (choanoflagellate) -
all of which have a single anterior
flagellum surrounded by a collar of
very fine pseudopodia (in cross-section
the collar seems like two arms, one on
either side of the flagellum). The
flagellum beats drawing water through
the collar and bacteria and other small
particles are trapped and then
ingested. Believed to be the source
group of the sponges and the metazoa.
Salpingoeca has an organic lorica.
Phase contrast. This picture was
taken by David Patterson, Linda Amaral
Zettler and Virginia Edgcomb of
material from the salt marsh at Little
Sippewissett (Massachusetts, USA) in
Autumn, 2000 and in Spring and summer,
2001. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
746

670,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free
moving Protist.7 8 This allows larger
free moving organisms to evolve.9

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
5. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p497-506.
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
12. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (1351my)

MORE INFO
[1] Nicholas H. Barton,
"Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books
?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225

[2] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2003, 188-191
 
[1] Sponge showing several choanocyte
chambers UNKNOWN
source: http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/prof
iles22/483113/projects/1558429/43a2a4c7e
127f66b7090ed679a8da30a.jpg


[2] Combination of: Saepicula and
Sphaeroeca NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
3229

670,000,000 YBN
297) Diplontic life cycle; organism is
predominantly diploid, mitosis in the
haploid phase does not occur.1 2

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick,
"The evolution of haploid-diploid life
cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=X
sgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10

 
[1] Gametic Meiosis. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Gametic_meiosis.png


[2] Gametic Meiosis. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Gametic_meiosis.png

660,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19
81) The first animal and first
metazoan, sponges (Porifera). Metazoans
are multicellular and have
differentiation (their cells perform
different functions). There are only
three major kinds of metazoans:
sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians.7
8 9

Sponges have different cell types: some
form a body wall, some secrete
skeleton, some contract, and some
digest food.10 11 12 13

All sponge cells are totipotent
{TOTiPiTeNT}; capable of regrowing a
new sponge.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p497-501.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
6. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p497-501.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
188-191.
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {c800my}
18. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (1351my)
19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] Müller, Werner E. G. “The
Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera
as Integrated Animals.” Integrative
and Comparative Biology 43.1 (2003):
3–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/388
4834

 
[1] Summary Description English:
Marine sponge. Color adjusted (but not
color accurate) underwater photograph
taken by Dlloyd using a digital camera
at a depth of approximately 100 feet in
Cayman. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/SpongeColorCorrect.jp
g


[2]
source: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/me
tazoa.htm

660,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
517) Male gonad (testis {TeSTiS3 } or
testicle) evolves in a sponge.4

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p20.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
3. ^ "testis." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 21 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p20.
5. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {based on
evolution of sponge) c850my}
7. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (1351my)
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(600?)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford
Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007.
Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglyca
n

[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p17
 
[1] Oocyte (female egg) release from
sponge, sperm release from sponge,
FIgure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Combination of image from: Brusca
and Brusca, ''Invertebrates'', Second
Edition, 2003,
http://www.oceanicresearch.org/sponges
.html and D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/me
tazoa.htm

650,000,000 YBN
41) Start of 60 million year (Varanger)
Ice Age (650-590 mybn).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol
91, pp 6743-6750, July
1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian
protists: Evidence for accelerating
evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
 
[1] Snowball Earth 600 to 750 million
years ago Earth was incased in ice for
prolong periods of time and each global
glacial event ended under severe
greenhouse conditions. This late
Precambrian planet-wide glaciation is
known as “Snowball Earth” and is an
extension on Sturtian- Varangian
glaciation. UNKNOWN
source: http://geology.fullerton.edu/whe
nderson/Fal201L2005/snowballearth/images
/snoballearth.jpg


[2] Snowball Earth Begins UNKNOWN
source: http://www.gambassa.com/gambassa
files/images/images/1310/20090528_snowba
ll_earth_v1.jpg

650,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
69) Cells that group as tissues that
are arranged in layers evolve in
metazoans.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p2-3.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
{c750MYBN (Ctenophores are first
metazoans with tissues}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

650,000,000 YBN
5 6
79) The Metazoans "Placozoa" evolve.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {780 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Srivastava, Mansi et al.
“The Trichoplax genome and the nature
of placozoans.” Nature 454.7207
(2008) :
955-960. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v454/n7207/abs/nature07191.html

[2] Dellaporta, Stephen L. et al.
“Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax
adhaerens supports Placozoa as the
basal lower metazoan phylum.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.23 (2006) : 8751 -8756.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
23/8751.full

 
[1] Description Trichoplax sp.
from Australia in light
microscopy Date February
2006 Source Oliver Voigt Author
Oliver Voigt CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c3/Trichoplax_mic.jpg


[2] from ediacara of australia
source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ven
dian/dickinsonia.html

650,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
223) Fungi "Chytridiomycota"
{KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) (includes
Chytridiomycetes {KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ}3
)).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ "Chytridiomycetes." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomy
cetes-1

4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-ch
ecklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

7. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
8. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1460mybn)
10. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1000mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=71577&tree=0.1

[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomy
cota

[3]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chytri
diomycetes&submit=Submit

[4] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of
Fungi", 2008, p142
Northern Russia7  
[1] Chytrids (Chytridiomycota): The
Primitive Fungi These fungi are
mostly aquatic, are notable for having
a flagella on the cells (a flagella is
a tail, somewhat like a tail on a sperm
or a pollywog), and are thought to be
the most primitive type of
fungi. actual photo comes
from: http://www.csupomona.edu/~jcclark
/classes/bot125/resource/graphics/chy_al
l_sph.html
source: http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazad
ero/Fungi.htm


[2] Chytridiomycota - Blastocladiales
- zoospore of Allomyces (phase contrast
illumination) X 2000
source: http://www.mycolog.com/chapter2b
.htm

640,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and
nervous system evolves in the ancestor
of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians.5 6
This will lead to the first ganglion
and brain.7 Earliest touch and sound
detection and memory.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably)
6. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p2,30.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based
on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn}
11. ^ S OOta and N Saitou,
"Phylogenetic relationship of muscle
tissues deduced from superimposition of
gene trees.", Mol Biol Evol (1999)
16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/
content/16/6/856.abstract
{Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn)(before
c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
12. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {775
MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as
first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before
c700MYBN}
13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {574mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Ghysen, A. (2003). The origin
and evolution of the nervous system.
The International journal of
developmental biology , 47 (7-8),
555-562. http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p
ubmed/14756331

[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750mybn)
 
[1] English: Drawing of Purkinje cells
(A) and granule cells (B) from pigeon
cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal,
1899; Instituto Santiago Ramón y
Cajal, Madrid, Spain. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/PurkinjeCell.jpg


[2] figure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p39. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p39.

640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans.3
Both the earliest known muscle and
nerve cells are found in Ctenophores
and Cnidarians.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
}
2. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
}
3. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
}
4. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
}
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750mybn) {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn)(before
c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
8. ^ S OOta and N
Saitou, "Phylogenetic relationship of
muscle tissues deduced from
superimposition of gene trees.", Mol
Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/
content/16/6/856.abstract
{Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
 
[1] Figure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p39. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p39.


[2] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A.
Fortey, ''Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the
Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation'', Paleobiology , Vol. 31,
No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency:
Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp.
94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671

640,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
225) Closeable mouth evolves in
metazoans.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2-3. {c750MYBN
(all metazoans but sponges have a
closable mouth}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750) {c750MYBN (all metazoans but
sponges have a closable mouth}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

640,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
414) Female gonad (ovary) evolves in
metazoans.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p48.
2. ^
http://species-identification.org/specie
s.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p48.
4. ^
http://species-identification.org/specie
s.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p48.
6. ^
http://species-identification.org/specie
s.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
{based on evolution of cnidaria) 580my}
10. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490. (c700my)
11. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford
Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007.
Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglyca
n

[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p17
[4] Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c850my)
[5] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1351my)
[6] Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)
 
[1] From: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', Second Edition,
2003. COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003


[2] Figure 3.8 Anthozoa. (a) Anemone
(Actiniaria), showing the pharynx,
mesenteries, mesenterial filamnets and
acontia. (b) Structure of a mesenterial
filament in transverse section. (c)
Scleractinian coral, showing calcareous
skeleton and coenenchyme. (d)
Gorgonian, showing skeleton made up of
a horny axial rod and spicules in the
mesogloea (after Pearse et al 1987).
(e) Alcyonarian soft coral, showing
spicular skeleton in the
mesogloea. From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.

640,000,000 YBN
5 6
523) Animals Ctenophores {TeN-o-FORZ3 }
evolve (comb jellies).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 May.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/c
tenophore>.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
3. ^ "ctenophore."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/c
tenophore>.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

630,000,000 YBN
19 20 21 22
82) Animals Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS}
evolve (ancestor of sea anemones, sea
pens, corals, and jellyfish).13 14 15
16 Earliest animal eye.17 18

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
"Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p41.
6. ^ Megan
O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of
the box jellyfish Chiropsella
bronzie.", Journal Of Comparative
Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory
Neural And Behavioral Physiology
(2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/resear
ch/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^
"Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p41.
12. ^ Megan
O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of
the box jellyfish Chiropsella
bronzie.", Journal Of Comparative
Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory
Neural And Behavioral Physiology
(2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/resear
ch/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490.
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
16. ^
"Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
17. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p41.
18. ^ Megan
O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of
the box jellyfish Chiropsella
bronzie.", Journal Of Comparative
Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory
Neural And Behavioral Physiology
(2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/resear
ch/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

19. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
21. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
22. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] Collins, A.G. (2002).
"Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the
Evolution of Cnidarian Life Cycles"
(PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology
15 (3): 418–432.
doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. h
ttp://cima.uprm.edu/~n_schizas/CMOB_8676
/Collins2002.pdf

[2] Philippe, H. (April 2009).
"Phylogenomics Revives Traditional
Views on Deep Animal Relationships".
Current Biology 19: 706–712.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052. PMID
19345102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/
science/article/pii/S0960982209008057

[3] doi:10.1038/4631003b; Published
online 24 February
2010 http://www.nature.com/nature/journ
al/v463/n7284/full/4631003b.html

 
[1] Octocorals Stylatula elongata –
White Sea Pen UNKNOWN
source: http://pt-lobos.com/cnidarianimg
/white_sea_pens.jpg


[2] Sea nettles, Chrysaora
quinquecirrha CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/36/Sea_nettles.jpg

600,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN3 }
soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.4

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran
fossils may relate to the accumulation
of free oxygen in the atmosphere and
sea, which may permit an oxidative
metabolism.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ediacaran." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
3. ^ "Ediacaran." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
6. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996).
"Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/93/10/4990.full.pdf

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Meert, J.
G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.;
Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin,
A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma
Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser
Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan".
Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005

9. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996).
"Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/93/10/4990.full.pdf

10. ^ Ben Waggoner, "The Ediacaran
Biotas in Space and Time", Integrative
and Comparative Biology , Vol. 43, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp.
104-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/38
84845
{Waggoner_200302xx.pdf}
11. ^ H. J. Hofmann, G. M. Narbonne and
J. D. Aitken, "Ediacaran remains from
intertillite beds in northwestern
Canada", Geology, December, 1990, v.
18, p.
1199-1202. http://geology.gsapubs.org/c
ontent/18/12/1199.abstract
{Hofmann_Edi
acaran_Fossils_1990.pdf}
12. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New
Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/305/5684/621.short

13. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New
Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/305/5684/621.short

14. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329. {630 mybn}
15. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). {575 mybn}
16. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{670 mybn}
17. ^ Meert, J. G.;
Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.;
Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin,
A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma
Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser
Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan".
Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005


MORE INFO
[1] Ivantsov, A. Yu (2004). "New
Proarticulata from the Vendian of the
Arkhangel'sk Region" (PDF).
Paleontological Journal 38 (3):
247–253
[2] Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.short

Sonora, Mexico6 |Adelaide, Australia7 |
Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta8  

[1] A general view of the life in the
time frame from about 605 to 542
million years ago (the Vendian), is
found at this New Zealand site which
concentrates on the Ediacaran epoch; it
mentions Australian and other
geographic localities where the
assemblages have been found. The fossil
life is represented entirely by
creatures with soft parts only. It is
suggested that these may be ancestral
to later phylla observed at the
beginning of the Paleozoic. Below is a
chart presenting typical Ediacaran
fauna, followed by an artist's
depiction of life on the sea floor at
that time, and beneath that is a layout
of some actual fossils: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
800pxlife_in_the_ediacaran_sea.jpg


[2] A more general view of the life in
the time frame from about 600+ to 542
million years ago (end of Proterozoic
and Precambrian into the oldest
Cambrian), known as the Ediacaran or
Vendian, is found at this New Zealand
site; it mentions Australian and other
geographic localities where the
assemblages have been found. The fossil
life represents entirely creatures with
soft parts only and suggestions that
these may be ancestral to later phylla
observed at the beginning of the
Paleozoic. Below is an artist's sketch
of some of these creatures: UNKNOWN
source: http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/doc
s/rst/Sect20/vendintro.jpg

600,000,000 YBN
23 24 25
107) Bilateral species evolve (two
sided symmetry).15 16 17
Earliest
animal brain.18 19 First triploblastic
species (third embryonic layer: the
mesoderm {meZuDRM20 }).21

In most bilaterians food enters in one
end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an
advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste
detection to be located on the head
near the mouth to help with getting
food.22

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p69.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p396-400.
6. ^ "mesoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p59.
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p472-476.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p69.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p396-400.
13. ^ "mesoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p59.
15. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p472-476.
16. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p69.
19. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p396-400.
20. ^ "mesoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
21. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p59.
22. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p396.
23. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

24. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
25. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)
 
[1] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

600,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
403) Earliest extant bilaterian:
Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and
nemertodermatida).4 5 6

Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track,
anus and coelom.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p472-476.
5. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ "Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorph
a

9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
11. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396
 
[1] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
459) An intestine evolves in a
bilaterian.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p61,66-67.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
6. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)
 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and
through-put of food evolves in a
bilaterian;3 found in all bilaterians
except Acoelomorpha4 and
Platyhelminthes.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p4.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p4.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
5. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p4.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
{630my (first bilateral
species-acoelomates}
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575
(fossil is older) {575 (first bilateral
species-acoelomates)(fossil record is
older}
 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
593) The genital pore, vagina, and
uterus evolve in a bilaterian.3

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p58-79.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p58-79.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
6. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)
 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
660) The penis evolves in a
bilaterian.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
2. ^ Ruppert,
Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology",
2004.
3. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
4. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
{based on some Platyhelminthes have a
penis) 630my}
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(575 (fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001
 
[1] From: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', Second Edition,
2003 COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003


[2] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.

590,000,000 YBN
70) End of Varanger Ice Age (650-590
mybn).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol
91, pp 6743-6750, July
1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian
protists: Evidence for accelerating
evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
 
[1] Precambrian Earth from the South
Pole 600MYBN UNKNOWN
source: http://cpgeosystems.com/gallery.
html

590,000,000 YBN
3 4
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom
(SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.2

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {estimate based on
coelom being before
protostome-deutostome division, after
acoelomorph) 630-590 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "coelom." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 24
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/body-cavity

 
[1] Example of the coleom's from 3
organisms UNKNOWN
source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_5DLPaU
qdg2g/TBBz3rcLDOI/AAAAAAAAAGA/Z34_-_usSc
w/s1600/3927715.jpg


[2] From NATURAL HISTORY
COLLECTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
EDINBURGH Formation of the coelom or
body cavity Acoelomates lack a
body cavity. In pseudocoelomates,
the coelom is formed from a persistent
embryonic cavity. In schizocoelous
coelomates, the coelom is formed by
splits in the embryonic mesoderm, the
middle layer of the body. In
enterocoelous coelomates, the coelom
forms within pouches of the gut
wall. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/images/c
ollections/invertebrates/intros/LgCoelom
.jpg

590,000,000 YBN
9 10
98) The first circulatory system; blood
vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian.4 First blood cells.5

Cnidarians and flatworms are no more
than two sheets of tissue thick and so
allow gas exchange and nutrient
distribution by diffusion, but larger
animals with thicker tissues require a
circulatory system to distribute
materials.6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p81.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p81.
5. ^ Brusca and
Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
6. ^
Solomon, E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin.
Biology. Cengage Learning, 2010.
Available Titles CourseMate Series,
p938-939. http://books.google.com/books
?id=itHVNZicPgwC

7. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
8. ^ Cowen, R.
History of Life. John Wiley & Sons,
2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z
-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46

9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on}
 
[1] D. T. Anderson, ''Invertebrate
Zoology'', Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001 AND Fig 11.1G
from: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', 2003,
p320. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p320.


[2] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001 COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001

580,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.13
14 Ancestor of all Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu15 } and Lophotrochozoa
{LuFoTroKoZOu16 }.17 18 19 20

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

3. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus,
DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith, SA;
Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

4. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdyso
zoa&submit=Submit

8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

11. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A;
Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

12. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling
the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree
of life. Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society B: Biological
Sciences , 363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
14. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

15. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdyso
zoa&submit=Submit

16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

19. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A;
Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

20. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling
the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree
of life. Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society B: Biological
Sciences , 363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
21. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (590my) {590 mybn}
23. ^
Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins.
“Fossils and phylogenies: integrating
multiple lines of evidence to
investigate the origin of early major
metazoan lineages.” Integrative and
Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744
-751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{543 mybn}
24. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{910 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=priapu
lids

[2] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton,
James G Gehling, and Davide Pisani,
"The Ediacaran emergence of
bilaterians: congruence between the
genetic and the geological fossil
records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April
27, 2008 363 (1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

 
[1] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png


[2] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png

580,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve.
Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS
6 }, Hemichordates, and Chordates.7 8

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {570 mybn}
11. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{910 mybn}
12. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and
phylogenies: integrating multiple lines
of evidence to investigate the origin
of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology
47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{367 mybn}
13. ^ Jun-Yuan
Chen, David J. Bottjer, Paola
Oliveri,Stephen Q. Dornbos, Feng Gao,
Seth Ruffins, Huimei Chi, Chia-Wei Li,
Eric H. Davidson, "Small Bilaterian
Fossils from 40 to 55 Million Years
Before the Cambrian", Science, Vol 305,
Issue 5681, 218-222, 9 July
2004 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/cont
ent/full/sci;305/5681/218


MORE INFO
[1] Kevin J Peterson, James A
Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide
Pisani, "The Ediacaran emergence of
bilaterians: congruence between the
genetic and the geological fossil
records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April
27, 2008 363 (1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

 
[1] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png


[2] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png

580,000,000 YBN
6 7
131) The first shell (or skeleton)
evolves; in ciliates.3 Skeletons
evolve independently in different
groups.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
2. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
3. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
4. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/547371/skeleton
>.
5. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
6. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} {earliest hard shell fossil -
ciliate) 580 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Euglenozoa -pellicle) 1956 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Hamm, Smetacek, "Armor: Why,
When, and How", in Falkowski, Knoll,
"Evolution of Primary Producers in the
Sea", 2007, p311-332, p323
[2] Bengtson, S.
(2004), Early skeletal fossils, in
Lipps, J.H., and Waggoner, B.M.,
"Neoproterozoic- Cambrian Biological
Revolutions" (PDF), Paleontological
Society Papers 10: 67–78, retrieved
2008-07-18 http://www.nrm.se/download/1
8.4e32c81078a8d9249800021554/Bengtson200
4ESF.pdf

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan,
Guizhou Province, South China5  

[1] Figure 1 from: Li, C.-W.; et al.
(2007). ''Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China''. Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP286.
11


[2] Figure 1 from: Li, C.-W.; et al.
(2007). ''Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China''. Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP286.
11

570,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha
{KE-ToG-nutu8 9 } evolve (Arrow
Worms).10

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat
other animals.11 12

The evolution of teeth and animal
predation starts an "arms race" that
rapidly transforms ecosystems around
the Earth.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p68.
2. ^ Vannier, J.; Steiner,
M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova,
J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian origin of
modern food webs: evidence from
predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610):
627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761.
PMC 2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/article
render.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

3. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognath
a

4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaeto
gnatha&submit=Submit

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Douglas Palmer,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
7. ^ Vannier,
J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu,
S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early
Cambrian origin of modern food webs:
evidence from predator arrow worms".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274
(1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/article
render.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

8. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognath
a

9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaeto
gnatha&submit=Submit

10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
11. ^ Douglas Palmer,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
12. ^
Vannier, J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.;
Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007).
"Early Cambrian origin of modern food
webs: evidence from predator arrow
worms". Proceedings of the Royal
Society B 274 (1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/article
render.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

13. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p68.
14. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (570)
15. ^
Chen, J.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y. (2002). "A
possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath
(arrow worm)". Science 298 (5591): 187.
doi:10.1126/science.1075059. PMID
12364798.
16. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

17. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", Oxford University
Press, New York., 2009, Chap 24,
p224-225. http://timetree.org/book.php

MORE INFO
[1] Gonzalo Giribet, Daniel L.
Distel, Martin Polz, Wolfgang Sterrer,
and Ward C. Wheeler Triploblastic
Relationships with Emphasis on the
Acoelomates and the Position of
Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora,
Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A
Combined Approach of 18S rDNA Sequences
and Morphology Syst Biol (2000) 49(3):
539-562 doi:10.1080/10635159950127385
[2] Martin Helmkampf, Iris
Bruchhaus, Bernhard Hausdorf, Multigene
analysis of lophophorate and
chaetognath phylogenetic relationships,
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution,
Volume 46, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages
206-214, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.004. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S105579030700317X)

[3] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and
evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html

[4] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2002, p844
 
[1] Chaetognatha UNKNOWN
source: http://content5.eol.org/content/
2010/08/09/03/74200_large.jpg


[2] Description Chatognath
Spadella cephaloptera Date
Unkown Source Own
work Author
Zatelmar Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8e/Chaetoblack.png

565,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
345) Deuterostome Hemichordates evolve
(pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS5 }6 , acorn
worms).7

Adult Pterobranchs are sessile,
fastening to solid structures, but the
younger (or larval) form is free
swimming, and is thought to have
evolved into tunicates and then the
first fish.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterob
ranchs&submit=Submit

2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterob
ranchs&submit=Submit

6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

10. ^ Xian-guang Hou, Richard J.
Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J.
Siveter, Mark Williams, Jan
Zalasiewicz, Xiao-ya Ma. A pterobranch
hemichordate zooid from the lower
Cambrian. Current Biology, 24 March
2011 DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.005 http://www.sc
iencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096
0982211002776

11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p383.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126698

 
[1] Description Eichelwurm, Exemplar
aus der Sammlung des Institutes für
Zoologie, FU Berlin. GNU
FDL Date Source Foto:
de:Benutzer:Necrophorus Author User
Necrophorus on
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) Released under the GNU Free
Documentation License. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Eichelwurm.jpg/
1024px-Eichelwurm.jpg


[2] Pterobranchs Resembling slugs
with hairy, branching tentacles,
Pterobranchs filter food from the water
and form colonies of “clones,” much
like coral polyps, often secreting a
network of hard tubing. Individual
zooids can crawl about freely within
the colony, but are connected to one
another by thin “cables,” quickly
retracting if disturbed. What makes the
Pterobranchs even stranger than corals
is that these slimy, slithering weirdos
are “hemichordates,” closer to us
vertebrates than to invertebrates like
worms and jellyfish. Read more:
http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-colonial-o
rganisms.php#ixzz1lJRtH61S COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.toptenz.net/wp-conten
t/uploads/2011/10/Pterobranch-colonial-o
rganisms.jpg

565,000,000 YBN
15 16
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata
evolves. Chordates are a very large
group that include all tunicates
{TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians,
reptiles, mammals, and birds.8 9
Chordates get their name from the
notochord {nOTe-KORD10 }, the cartilage
rod that runs along the back of the
animal, in the embryo if not in the
adult.11

The ancestor of all chordates evolves
"upside-down". Unlike earlier
invertebrates, this ancestor and all
vertebrates have their nerve cord near
their back and their heart near their
front.12 13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p368-p381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p368-p381.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p399-400.
6. ^
"ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
7. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p368-p381.
10. ^ "notochord." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04
Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p399-400.
13. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
14. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381. {565 MYBN}
16. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3208
583.stm


MORE INFO
[1] Douzery, E. J. P., Snell, E.
A., Bapteste, E., Delsuc, F., &
Philippe, H. (2004). The timing of
eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and
fossils? Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America , 101 (43),
15386-15391. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.040398410
1

[2] Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho and Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science New Series, Vol. 271, No. 5248
(Jan. 26, 1996), pp.
470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/28
90144

[3] Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Drafting a
Tree.” Science 300.5626 (2003) :
1694.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/300/5626/1694.summary

[4] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A.
Purnell, "The Evolutionary Emergence of
Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless
Relatives", EVOLUTION: EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212,
DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[5]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41451

 
[1] from adelaide, australia UNKNOWN
source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/t
ech/3208583.stm


[2] [t Note that this is a vertebrate
- not a pre-vertebrate
chordate] Portion of figure
from: D.-G. Shu, S. Conway Morris, J.
Han, Z.-F. Zhang, K. Yasui, P. Janvier,
L. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, J.-N. Liu, Y. Li
and H.-Q. Liu, ''Head and backbone of
the Early Cambrian vertebrate
Haikouichthys'', Nature 421,
526-529(30 January
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v421/n6922/full/nature01264.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: https://nature.com/journal/v421/
n6922/images/nature01264-f1.2.jpg

565,000,000 YBN
4 5
348) Earliest extant chordate:
Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea
squirts).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p377-381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381. {565 mybn}
5. ^
Chen, Jun-Yuan et al. “The First
Tunicate from the Early Cambrian of
South China.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 100.14
(2003): 8314 –8318.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/
14/8314.full

 
[1] Description Clavelina
moluccensis, the bluebell
tunicate English: Tunicate colony.
(Clavelina moluccensis) Date
04/17/05 Source Own
work Author Nhobgood CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/98/Bluebell_tunicates_Ni
ck_Hobgood.jpg


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
117) Earliest animal shell (or
skeleton).2
Earliest evidence of
animals eating other animals
(predation).3 4
Appearance of small
shelly fossils and deep burrows
correlated with a decline in
stromatolites, possibly from feeding.5


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
2. ^
Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome:
simultaneous origin of protective
armour and infaunal shelters at the
Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in
Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower,
Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the
Ediacaran Biota, Special publications,
286, London: Geological Society, pp.
405–414, doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN
9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511
191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Pu
blications/Verdun.pdf

3. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July
1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons"
(abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID
17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/
abstract/257/5068/367

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345

4. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and
LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics
in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p.
454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

5. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
6. ^
SW Grant, "Shell structure and
distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal
Proterozoic.", Source: American journal
of science (1990) volume: 290-A
(Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/
1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf

7. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and
LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics
in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p.
454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

8. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p163-170.
9. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution
of the Earth", 6th edition 2002, p212.
10. ^
Adam C. Maloof, Susannah M. Porter,
John L. Moore, Frank Ö. Dudás, Samuel
A. Bowring, John A. Higgins, David A.
Fike, and Michael P. Eddy, "The
earliest Cambrian record of animals and
ocean geochemical change", Geological
Society of America Bulletin, November
2010, v. 122, p. 1731-1774,
doi:10.1130/B30346.1 http://gsabulletin
.gsapubs.org/content/122/11-12/1731.full

11. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and
distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal
Proterozoic.", Source: American journal
of science (1990) volume: 290-A
(Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/
1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf

12. ^
http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/neoproter
ozoic/ediacaran/ediacaran2.htm

13. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and
LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics
in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p.
454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782


MORE INFO
[1] Philip W. Signor and Mark A.
S. McMenamin "The Early Cambrian Worm
Tube Onuphionella from California and
Nevada", Journal of Paleontology , Vol.
62, No. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp.
233-240 Published by: Paleontological
Society Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1305228
[2] MATTHEWS, S. C., AND V. V.
MISSARZHEVSKY. 1975. "Small shelly
fossils of late Precambrian and early
Cambrian age: a review of recent work."
Journal of the Geological Society,
131:289-304 http://jgs.geoscienceworld.
org/content/131/3/289.abstract

[3] GRANT, S. W. F. 1990. "Shell
structure and distribution of Cloudina,
a potential index fossil for the
terminal Proterozoic." American Journal
of Science, 290(A):261-294
(Ara Formation) Oman6 |Lijiagou,
Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province7
 

[1] Cloudina COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/n
eoproterozoic/ediacaran/images/Cloudina.
jpg


[2] Cloudina from: HONG HUA, BRIAN R.
PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, ''Borings in
Cloudina Shells: Complex Predator-Prey
Dynamics in the Terminal
Neoproterozoic'', PALAIOS, October
2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaios.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/vol18/issue4-5/images/large/i
0883-1351-018-04-0454-f03.jpeg

560,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu4 } evolve. Ecdysozoa are
animals that molt (lose their outer
skin) as they grow.5 6 This is the
ancestor of round worms, and arthropods
(which includes insects and
crustaceans).7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdyso
zoa&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdyso
zoa&submit=Submit

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
7. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198710

8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c580) {c580 mybn}
10. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005),p388-394.
(560) {560 mybn}
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{790 mybn}
12. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and
phylogenies: integrating multiple lines
of evidence to investigate the origin
of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology
47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{530 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A;
Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p390-394
[4] Telford, Maximilian J et
al. “The Evolution of the
Ecdysozoa.” Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 363.1496 (2008):
1529 –1537.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1529.long

 
[1] Description English: Life
restoration of Ottoia in natural
environment with nearby
Haplophrentis. Date 11-29-08 Source
Own work Author Smokeybjb GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/10/Ottoia_burrowing.jpg


[2] Description
en:category:Caenorhabditis
elegans Date 2006-09-06 (original
upload date) (Original text :
09/05/2006) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. (Original text : Donated by
Zeynep F. Altun) Author Original
uploader was Kbradnam at
en.wikipedia (Original text : Zeynep
F. Altun, Editor of
www.wormatlas.org) Permission (Reusing
this file) CC-BY-SA-2.5. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Adult_Caenorhab
ditis_elegans.jpg/1280px-Adult_Caenorhab
ditis_elegans.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
331) Protostomes Lophotrochozoa
{Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u4 } evolve. Ancestor
of rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods
{BrA-KE-O-PoDZ5 }, entoprocts
{eNTuProKS6 }, bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ7
}, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs,
nemertea, molluscs and annelids.8 9

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachi
opods&submit=Submit

6. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com
Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/e
ntoproct?s=t

7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozo
ans&submit=Submit

8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c547) {c580 mybn}
12. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003). (550) {550 mybn}
13. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{790 mybn}
14. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and
phylogenies: integrating multiple lines
of evidence to investigate the origin
of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology
47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{538 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=202032

 
[1] A rotifer. The cilia around
this rotifer's mouth are unusually
long; they reach as far as the strand
of spirogyra to the right. 10×
objective, 15× eyepiece. The numbered
ticks on the scale are 122 µM apart.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/121893/530wm/C0058380-Rotifer_SEM-SPL.
jpg


[2] Description Clams Date
Source Own work Author
Marlith CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Clams.JPG

560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p372-376.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41451

 
[1] Lancelet (Branchiostoma
lanceolatum) Description
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas,
1774) English: Amphioxus from course
sandy sediments (600µm) on the Belgian
continental shelf. Length: ~22
mm. Geo-location not applicable as the
picture was taken in the
lab. Français : Branchiostoma
lanceolatum, un céphalochordé,
récolté dans des sédiments de sable
grossier (600µm) sur le Plateau
continental belge. Longueur totale: 22
mm environ. Date 1997 Source
Own work Author (Hans
Hillewaert) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/47/Branchiostoma_lanceol
atum.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets
{laNSleTS4 }.5 First liver and
kidney.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lancelet." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11
Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.
4. ^ "lancelet." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11
Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.

MORE INFO
[1] Philip C. J. Donoghue and
Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary
Emergence of Vertebrates From Among
Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION:
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH, Volume 2,
Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41451

 
[1] Lancelet (Branchiostoma
lanceolatum) Description
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas,
1774) English: Amphioxus from course
sandy sediments (600µm) on the Belgian
continental shelf. Length: ~22
mm. Geo-location not applicable as the
picture was taken in the
lab. Français : Branchiostoma
lanceolatum, un céphalochordé,
récolté dans des sédiments de sable
grossier (600µm) sur le Plateau
continental belge. Longueur totale: 22
mm environ. Date 1997 Source
Own work Author (Hans
Hillewaert) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/47/Branchiostoma_lanceol
atum.jpg


[2] Lancelet COPYRIGHTED
source: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/
16cm05/1116/34-04b-Lancelet.jpg

550,000,000 YBN
7
328) Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes
{aSKHeLmiNtEZ3 4 } (worms: nematodes
and priapulids).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126691

3. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminth
es

4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschel
minthes

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126691

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c550)
 
[1] Description English: Priapulid
worm Priapulus caudatus in a Petry
dish. The specimen was found in the
intertidal of the Russian coast of the
Barents Sea. Русский:
Приапулида Priapulus caudatus
в чашке Петри. Особь
найдена в
приливно-отливной
зоне на российском
побережье Баренцева
моря. Date between 2005 and
2007 Source kindly granted by the
author Author Dmitry
Aristov Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/Priapulus_caudatus.jp
g


[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

547,000,000 YBN
2
334) Lophotrochozoa Brachiopods
{BrAKEOPoDZ}.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c547)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=202032

 
[1] Brachiopod UNKNOWN
source: http://paleo.cortland.edu/tutori
al/Brachiopods/Brachiopod%20Images/lingu
la.GIF


[2] Brachiopods (Glottidia
Albida) Photographic Print by Richard
Herrmann item #: 357011759A UNKNOWN
source: http://cache2.artprintimages.com
/lrg/38/3813/HHRIF00Z.jpg

543,000,000 YBN
7
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts
are repeated serially).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {537 MYBN (based on
Annaleda - segmented worns} {543 MYBN
(based on arthropods, annelids -
segmented worns=537}
 
[1] Dikinsonia grew to a length of as
much as two feet (60 cm), which made it
one of the larger complex organisms of
the Vendian. It's body is segmented
with midline symmetry dividing it's
body. Its body may have been denser
than modern jellyfish or worms. [Atlas
of Prehistoric World, Discovery
Books Reconstruction of Dickinsonia,
based on images from Atlas of the
Prehistoric World, Discovery Channel
Books and Kingfisher Illustrated
Dinosaur Encyclopedia UNKNOWN
source: http://paleontology.edwardtbabin
ski.us/vendian/dickinsonia.jpg


[2] Spriggina Spriggina was
definitely a predator of the seas of
that time. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.museum.toulouse.fr/IM
G/jpg/spriginna_72dpi_680.jpg

542,000,000 YBN
5
53) End of the "Precambrian". End of
the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK1 } Eon. Start of
the Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK2 } Era and the
Cambrian Period.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic

2. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/P
aleozoic>.
3. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

5. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf


MORE INFO
[1] Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A
New Period for the Geologic Time
Scale.” Science 305.5684 (2004): 621
–622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/305/5684/621.short

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] Description English: Global
pareconstruction of the Earth in the
early Cambrian period 540 million years
ago. Deutsch: Globale
paläogeografische Rekonstruktion der
Erde während des frühen Kambriums vor
540 Millionen Jahren. русский:
Глобальная
палеогеографическая
реконструкция Земли
в начале
Кембрийского периода
540 миллионов лет тому
назад. українська:
Глобальная
палеогеографічна
реконструкція Землі
на початку
Кембрійського
періоду 540 мільйонів
років тому назад. Date
23 April 2008 Source
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/mollglobe.
html Author Dr. Ron Blakey -
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/ CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d6/EarlyCambrianGlobal.j
pg

542,000,000 YBN
9 10
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or
"Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular
animals between 542 and 530 million
years ago that results in the
appearance of many (between 20 and 35)
of the major phyla of animals.5 6 7 An
increase of animals with shells.8

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 26 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-ex
plosion

2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
3. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/90620/Cambrian-explosion
>.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
5. ^
"Cambrian Explosion." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-ex
plosion

6. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
7. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/90620/Cambrian-explosion
>.
8. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
9. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/90620/Cambrian-explosion
>. {542-530
mybn}
10. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
{535 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Derek E. G. Briggs and
Richard A. Fortey, "Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the
Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation", Paleobiology , Vol. 31, No.
2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency:
Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp.
94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671

 
[1] Artist drawing of the bottom of the
Cambrian shallow sea floor, showing
trilobites (imagine these crawling
around on the Cambrian sea floor at
Devil's Lake state park 550 m.y. ago!)
(above). UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geology.wisc.edu/home
pages/g100s2/public_html/Geologic_Time/L
3_Cambrian_Life_More.jpg


[2] Description English: Fossil
specimen of Opabinia regalis from the
Burgess shale on display at the
Smithsonian in Washington, DC. This
appears to be the exact specimen
pictured in Fig. 42 of 'The Crucible of
Creation: The Burgess Shale and the
Rise of Animals', by Simon Conway
Morris, Oxford University Press,
1998. Date 12 April 2009 (original
upload date) Source Transferred
from en.wikipedia; transferred to
Commons by User:FunkMonk using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was Jstuby at en.wikipedia PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/50/Opabinia_smithsonian.
JPG

540,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
104) Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u3
} Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ}
evolve (flatworms).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
6. ^ Douzery,
Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The Timing of
Eukaryotic Evolution: Does a Relaxed
Molecular Clock Reconcile Proteins and
Fossils?” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386
-15391.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/
43/15386

7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J et al. “The
Ediacaran Emergence of Bilaterians:
Congruence Between the Genetic and the
Geological Fossil Records.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1435 -1443.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1435.full

 
[1] Description English: The
flatworm Pseudoceros dimidiatus. North
Horn, Osprey Reef, Coral Sea. Date
August 9, 2005 Source
Flickr Author Richard
Ling CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1e/Pseudoceros_dimidiatu
s.jpg


[2] Two turbellarians mating by penis
fencing. Each has two penises, the
white spikes on the undersides of their
heads. Description English: Two
Individuals of Pseudobiceros bedfordi
about to have a Sperm Battle. –
Species of the flatworm genus
Pseudobiceros are hermaphroditic and
have two penises that are used to
inject sperm into the partner. P.
bedfordi is exceptional in that it
applies sperm onto the partner's skin
rather than injecting it. Deutsch:
Zwei Plattwürmer (Pseudobiceros
bedfordi) vor der Begattung. Der
doppelte Penis ist bei beiden
Individuen gut sichtbar. Date
Published: 2004-06-15 Source
Whitfield J: Everything You Always
Wanted to Know about Sexes. PLoS Biol
2/6/2004: e183.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183.g001,
photo page Author Photo courtesy
of Nico Michiels. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Flatworm_sex.png

540,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo4
}.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-
2

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates,
discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
"Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-
2

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates,
discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ A.
Braun, J. Chen, D. Waloszek and A.
Maas, "First Early Cambrian
Radiolaria", Geological Society,
London, Special Publications 2007, v.
286, p.
143-149. http://sp.lyellcollection.org/
content/286/1/143.short

and http://www.core-orsten-research.de/
Publications/PDF_Paper/ulm_team/2007b_Br
aun_etal.pdf {Earliest radiolaria
fossils) 540 mybn}
8. ^ Cédric Berney and
Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale
for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
9. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_
taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for
excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600my)
[2] Keeling, Patrick J.
et al. "The tree of eukaryotes." Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 20.12 (2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534705003046

[3] Delsuc, Frederic, Henner Brinkmann,
and Herve Philippe. "Phylogenomics and
the reconstruction of the tree of
life." Nat Rev Genet 6.5 (2005):
361-375. http://www.nature.com/nrg/jour
nal/v6/n5/abs/nrg1603.html

[4]
http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/Bio-h
ome/Pratt/boo305.htm

[5]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

[6]
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ra
diolaria.html

[7] "Polycystine". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystine

 
[1] FIG. 2. The tree of life based on
molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae-a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red).
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/95/1/147/FIG2


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group.
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

540,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
321) Protists "Foraminifera"
{FOraMiniFRu4 }.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=forami
nifera&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for
excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=forami
nifera&submit=Submit

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for
excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second
Edition, 2003, p165-167. {earliest
fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
8. ^
Culver, S. J. (1991) Science 254,
689–691.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkTyp
e=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=254/5032/68
9

and http://www.sciencemag.org/content/2
54/5032/689.full.pdf {earliest fossils,
lower Cambrian) c540 my}
9. ^ Culver, S. J.
(1994) J. Foraminiferal Res. 24,
191–202. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijli
nk?linkType=ABST&journalCode=gsjfr&resid
=24/3/191
{earliest fossils, lower
Cambrian) c540 my}
10. ^ Cédric Berney and
Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale
for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
11. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_
taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). has 1600mybn
for excavates, discricristales,
rhizaria, chromalveolates (1600mybn)
[2]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

[3]
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/fo
ram.html

[4] "Allogromiida". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromiid
a

[5] "Fusulinid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusulinid
[6] "Globigerinida". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globigerini
da

[7] "Miliolid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliolid
[8] "Rotaliida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotaliida
[9] "Textulariida". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textulariid
a

[10]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P4356&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

[11]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P2007&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

 
[1] FIG. 2. The tree of life based on
molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae-a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red).
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/95/1/147/FIG2


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group.
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

540,000,000 YBN
5
340) Lophotrochozoa Nemertea
{ne-mR-TEu3 } (ribbon worms).4

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemert
ea&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemert
ea&submit=Submit

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c541)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201563

 
[1] Description English: Basiodiscus
mexicanus was photographed at Los
Arcos, near Puerto Vallarta,
Mexico Date Source University
of California Museum of Paleology:
Introduction to the Nemertini Author
Chris Meyer and Allen
Collins Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Nemertea_Basiodiscus_
mexicanus.png


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

540,000,000 YBN
5
341) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ3
}.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tardigrade." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05
Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "tardigrade." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 05 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?pos=0

 
[1] Description Willow Gabriel and
Bob Goldstein,
http://tardigrades.bio.unc.edu/ Date
2007-05-20 (original upload
date) CC
source: http://28.media.tumblr.com/tumbl
r_limfh2NXtC1qc6j5yo1_400.jpg


[2] from Giribet 2007
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/65/Hypsibiusdujardini.jp
g

540,000,000 YBN
6
342) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans
{oniKoFereNS3 } evolve.4 Onychophorans
are a transition between worms and
arthropods: they have segmented
worm-like bodies but with appendages
like arthropods.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "onychophoran." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05
Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "onychophoran." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 05 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Donald Prothero,
"Evolution: What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?pos=0

 
[1] Euperipatoides kanangrensis on a
eucalyptus log, in which it normally
resides. Description English:
Cropped version of File:Euperipatoides
kanangrensis.jpg Date 13 October
2009 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/67/Euperipatoides_kanang
rensis_crop.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

535,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
114) The first heart evolves in
bilaterians.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p124-125.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p124-125.
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p 73.
5. ^ Palmer,
et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.
6. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on} {539 MYBN
(based on mollusca}
 
[1] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.


[2] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.

533,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
343) Lophotrochozoa Mollusks evolve.3


The phylum Mollusca is the second
largest animal phylum after the
arthropods, and is divided into seven
classes, three of which (Gastropoda
{GaSTroPeDu4 } (snails), Bivalvia
(clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda
{SeFeloPeDu5 } (squids and octupuses)
are of major importance.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastro
poda&submit=Submit

5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephal
opoda&submit=Submit

6. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c539)
9. ^ Caron,
Jean-Bernard et al. "A soft-bodied
mollusc with radula from the Middle
Cambrian Burgess Shale." Nature
442.7099 (2006):
159-163. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v442/n7099/full/nature04894.html


MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201563

 
[1] From: Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S.,
and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate
Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp.
284–291. ISBN 0030259827. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mol
lusca


[2] Description Clams Date
Source Own work Author
Marlith CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Clams.JPG

530,000,000 YBN
3
338) Lophotrochozoa annelids (segmented
worms).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c537)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201563

 
[1] An earthworm's clitellum they have
a unique reproductive organ, the
ring-shaped clitellum (''pack saddle'')
round their bodies, which produces a
cocoon that stores and nourishes
fertilized eggs until they
hatch Description Regenwurm mit
Clitellum - (sattelförmige Verdickung
im vorderen Drittel).Das Sekret der
Clitellum-Drüsen dient u. a. zur
Bildung dieses Ei-Kokons. Français :
Ver de terre (Oligochaeta,
Lumbricina) Svenska: Daggmask
(Lumbricus spec.) Русский:
Дождевой червь (род
Лумбрикус) Date Source
first upload in de wikipedia on
09:58, 16. Feb 2005 by Michael
Linnenbach Author Michael
Linnenbach GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/30/Regenwurm1.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

530,000,000 YBN
7 8
339) Ecdysozoa Arthropods evolve.3

Arthropods can be compared to a
segmented worm encased in a rigid
exoskeleton.4

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest
phylum in the animal kingdom.
Arthropods include the trilobites, the
crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and
lobsters), the Myriapoda (centipedes
and millipedes), the Chelicerata
(arachnids and horseshoe crabs) and the
insects.5 All arthropods have a
segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which
serves as both armor and as a surface
for muscle attachment.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
p476.
5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree, 2009,
p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani200
9Chap29.pdf

6. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c543)
8. ^ Palmer, et. al.,
"Prehistoric Life", p66.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?pos=0

 
[1] Extinct and modern
arthropods English: Arthropoda
collage. From left to right and from
top to bottom: Kolihapeltis,
Stylonurus, Scorpion, Crab, Centipede,
Butterfly CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/80/Arthropoda.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsociorg/content
/363/1496/1513

530,000,000 YBN
350) Chordata Vertebrates evolve.3
This Subphylum contains most fishes,
and all amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41579

 
[1] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg


[2] Description Clockwise,
starting from top left: 1. Fire
Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) 2.
Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus
porosus) 3. Southern Cassowary
(Casusarius casuarius) 4.
Black-and-rufus Giant Elephant Shrew
(Rhynchocyon petersi) 5. Ocean Sunfish
(Mola mola) Date CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/ec/Vertebrates.png

530,000,000 YBN
3
6637) Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve
(agnatha).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p364-371.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New
Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New
Series, Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19,
1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/165
5241

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41579

 
[1] Description English: Pacific
hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) in a hole
at 150 meters depth. Latitude 37 58 N.,
Longitude 123 27 W. Location:
California, Cordell Bank National
Marine Sanctuary. Date Last Updated:
September 30, 2009. Source
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/sanc
1692.htm
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/bigs/sanc16
92.jpg Author Linda Snook, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) / Cordell Bank National Marine
Sanctuary (CBNMS) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Eptatretus_stou
tii.jpg/1280px-Eptatretus_stoutii.jpg


[2] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg

520,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
133) Arthropods Chelicerata
(KeliSuroTo4 ) (eight legs, ancestor of
horseshoe crabs, mites, spiders, and
scorpions).5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelic
erata&submit=Submit

2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ J. W. Shultz (2007).
"A phylogenetic analysis of the
arachnid orders based on morphological
characters". Zoological Journal of the
Linnean Society 150: 221–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-364
2.2007.00284.x

4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelic
erata&submit=Submit

5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
6. ^ D. Waloszek, J.A.
Dunlop, "A larval sea spider
(Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the
Upper Cambrian ‘Orsten’ of Sweden
and the phylogenetic position of
pycnogonids", Palaeontology, 45 (2002),
pp.
421–446 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.co
m/doi/10.1111/1475-4983.00244/abstract

7. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
8. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
9. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p66-67.
10. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.

MORE INFO
[1] Charbonnier, S, J Vannier,
and B Riou. “New Sea Spiders from the
Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône
Lagerstätte.” Proceedings of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
274, no. 1625 (October 22, 2007): 2555
–2561. http://rspb.royalsocietypublis
hing.org/content/274/1625/2555.full

[2] Dunlop and Seldon, "The Early
History and Phylogeny of the
Chelicerates", in Fortey and Thomas,
"Arthropod Relatioinships", 1997, p231
earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten,
Sweden6  

[1] Description English: Horseshoe
crab dorsal and ventral Italiano:
Limulus polyphemus dorsale e
ventrale Date 10 April 2009 Source
Own work Author Ricce PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Limulo_dorsale_
e_ventrale.jpg/1280px-Limulo_dorsale_e_v
entrale.jpg


[2] taken from en:Image:Horseshoe crab
female.jpg Dead female horseshoe crab
from NOAA Photo Library: Image ID:
line2632, America's Coastlines
Collection Location: Patuxent River,
Maryland Photo Date: 2002 August
17 Photographer: Mary Hollinger,
NESDIS/NODC biologist, NOAA PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1b/Horseshoe_crab_female
.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
2 3
148) Earliest color vision evolves in
arthropods.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh,
K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color
Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of
Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/c
ontent/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP

2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
3. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.

MORE INFO
[1] Yokoyama, S., and B. F.
Radlwimmer. 2001. The molecular
genetics and evolution of red and green
color vision in vertebrates. Genetics
Society of America. 158: 1697-1710
[2] Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004)
 
[1] Microphotograph of the multiple eye
of the trilobite Phacops, showing the
calcite lenses in the eye. PD
source: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ed
ucation-and-outreach/additional/science-
focus/images/phacops_eye.jpg


[2] Description English: A
schizochroal [eye] of the trilobite
Phacops rana, eye dimensions 8mm across
by 5.5mm high, found near Sylvania,
Ohio, USA, from the Devonian Date 15
October 2011 Source Own work Author
Dwergenpaartje CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Phacops_rana_crassitu
berculata_eye_3.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
346) Deuterostome Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS 3 } (sea cucumbers, sea
urchins, sand dollars, star fish).4

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "echinoderm." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Adam M. English, Loren E.
Babcock, Census of the Indian Springs
Lagerstätte, Poleta Formation
(Cambrian), western Nevada, USA,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
Palaeoecology, Volume 295, Issues
1–2, 1 September 2010, Pages 236-244,
ISSN 0031-0182,
10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.041. (http://w
ww.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0031018210003287)

6. ^ J. Wyatt Durham, "Notes on the
Helicoplacoidea and Early Echinoderms",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 41, No.
1 (Jan., 1967), pp.
97-102 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1301
905

7. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p66.
8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p384.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126698

 
[1] Kachemak Bay National Estuarine
Research Reserve. A beautiful array of
starfish , sea urchins and mussel
shells in the rocky intertidal zone of
Kachemak Bay. Image ID: nerr0878,
NOAA National Estuarine Research
Reserve Collection from NOAA:
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/nerr/nerr08
78.htm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Nerr0878.jpg/10
24px-Nerr0878.jpg


[2] Description English: The first
in a sequence of three photos that show
a brittle star flipping itself
rightside-up. Date 1 May
2011 Source Own work Author
Alexcooper1 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/A_brittle_star_
flipping_itself_rightside-up.jpg/1024px-
A_brittle_star_flipping_itself_rightside
-up.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
6349) The arthropods trilobites
evolve.5 6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H.
Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage
.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that
these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
2. ^
http://www.nature.com0/nature/journal/v4
27/n6971/full/427205a.html
(here it is
claimed they are trilobite embryos)
3. ^ Patel,
N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution:
insights from studies of insect
segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/con
tent/266/5185/581.abstract
{science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%
27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
4. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/
trilobita/trilobitafr.html

5. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H.
Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage
.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that
these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
6. ^
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v42
7/n6971/full/427205a.html
(here it is
claimed they are trilobite embryos)
7. ^ Patel,
N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution:
insights from studies of insect
segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/con
tent/266/5185/581.abstract
{science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%
27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/
trilobita/trilobitafr.html

9. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
10. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
11. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of
insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/con
tent/266/5185/581.abstract
{science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%
27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my {510 mybn}
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/
trilobita/trilobitafr.html
{540 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.trilobites.info/biostratigrap
hy.htm

[2]
http://www.trilobites.info/origins.htm
[3] Babcock, L.E., S Peng, G. Geyer, &
J.H. Shergold. 2005. Changing
perspectives on Cambrian
chronostratigraphy and progress toward
subdivision of the Cambrian System.
Geosci. Journal
9(2):101-6. http://www.springerlink.com
/content/t7062n5744462260/

[4] Niles Eldredge, "Trilobites and
Evolutionary Patterns", p305-332 in
Anthony Hallam, "Patterns of evolution
as illustrated by the fossil record,
Volume 5", 1977,
p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=
q7GjDIyyWegC

[5] Hughes, N. 2007. The evolution of
trilobite body patterning. Annu. Rev.
Earth Planet. Sci. 2007.
35:401–34. http://www.annualreviews.o
rg/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.0313
06.140258

[6] Richard A. Fortey "Trilobite
Systematics: The Last 75 Years",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 75, No.
6, 75th Anniversary Issue (Nov., 2001),
pp.
1141-1151 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1
307082

[7]
http://www.palaeos.org/Cambrian_Stage_3
 
[1] example of earliest trilobites
(e.g., Fallotaspis longa) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.trilobites.info/biost
ratfallon.jpg


[2] Niles Eldredge, ''Trilobites and
Evolutionary Patterns'', p305-332 in
Anthony Hallam, ''Patterns of evolution
as illustrated by the fossil record,
Volume 5'', 1977,
p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=
q7GjDIyyWegC COPYRIGHTED
source: http://books.google.com/books?id
=q7GjDIyyWegC

513,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
6351) Ancestor of all Arthropod
Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, lobsters,
barnicles).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ David J.
Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter
Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with
three-dimensionally preserved soft
parts from Shropshire, England",
Special Papers in Paleontology, 70,
2003
4. ^ Siveter, David J., Mark Williams,
and Dieter Waloszek. “A
Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.”
Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/293/5529/479.abstract

5. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams,
and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with
three-dimensionally preserved soft
parts from Shropshire, England",
Special Papers in Paleontology, 70,
2003
6. ^ Siveter, David J., Mark Williams,
and Dieter Waloszek. “A
Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.”
Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/293/5529/479.abstract

7. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009,
p66-67.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
9. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395


MORE INFO
[1]
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles
/Fossilgroups/Crustacea/fossils.html

[2]
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
2001/07/0719_crustacean.html

earliest fossils: Shropshire, England3
4  

[1] Canadaspis perfecta (ROM 61119) –
Part and counterpart. Complete specimen
showing phosphatized gut diverticulae
and posterior dark stain (probably
representing decay fluids), lateral
view. Left images, complete slab (part)
showing associated species; Yohoia
tenuis (bottom right), Waptia
fieldensis (left, partially covered by
a disarticulated carapace of
Canadaspis), Burgessia bella (far
left). Right images, details of the
counterpart. Specimen length = 72 mm.
Specimen dry – direct light (top
row), dry – polarized light (bottom
left), wet – polarized light (bottom
right). Walcott Quarry. © Royal
Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard
Caron COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.burgess-shale.rom.on.
ca/images/zoomify/canadaspis-rom-61119.j
pg


[2] 3D model of Canadaspis
perfecta. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/v
ideo/fossil-gallery/0b1-canadaspis-turnt
able.jpg

501,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
6348) Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu3
} (centipedes and millipedes).4

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1

2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ "Myriapoda."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05
May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1

4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
5. ^ Robison, Richard A.
“Earliest-known Uniramous
Arthropod.” Nature 343.6254 (1990):
163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html

{Robison_19900111.pdf}
6. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod
Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
7. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I.,
2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from
the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia:
Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0302
2596
{Budd_2001.pdf}
8. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A.
Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land
Animals in the Silurian: Arachnids and
Myriapods from Shropshire, England.”
Science 250, no. 4981 (November 2,
1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmg
r?gca=sci;250/4981/658

9. ^ Robison, Richard A.
“Earliest-known Uniramous
Arthropod.” Nature 343.6254 (1990):
163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html

{Robison_19900111.pdf}
10. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod
Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
11. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I.,
2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from
the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia:
Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0302
2596
{Budd_2001.pdf}
12. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B.,
Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple,
Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and
Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on
Land: Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

13. ^ Budd, G.E., Högström, A.E.S.,
and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like
arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of
East Siberia: Paläontologische
Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0302
2596

14. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

15. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A. Selden,
and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in
the Silurian: Arachnids and Myriapods
from Shropshire, England.” Science
250, no. 4981 (November 2, 1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmg
r?gca=sci;250/4981/658

16. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

17. ^ William A Shear, Andrew J Jeram
and Paul Selden, "Centiped legs
(Arthropoda,
Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha) from the
Silurian and Devonian of Britain and
the Devonian of North America.",
American Museum novitates 3231:1-16
(1998)
http://biostor.org/reference/30111
18. ^ Grimaldi, Engels, "Evolution of
the Insects", 2005, p107-108.
19. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p251-253.
20. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p111.
earliest possible fossils: (Marine
deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA5
6 and (Ust-Majan formation) East
Siberia7 |(earliest fossils)
Shropshire, England8  

[1] Description Lithobius
forficatus Deutsch: Steinläufer Date
9 August 2005 Source Own
work Author Darkone CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/79/Steinl%C3%A4ufer_%28L
ithobius_forficatus%29_3.jpg


[2] Description Tachypodoiulus
niger Date 2007-06-28 Source Own
work Author Stemonitis CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/86/Tachypodoiulus_
niger_1.jpg/1280px-Tachypodoiulus_niger_
1.jpg

488,300,000 YBN
3
121) End of the Cambrian (542-488.3
mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN1 } (488.3-443.7 mybn)
Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 500 Ma - Late Cambrian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/500
_Camb_2globes.jpg

488,000,000 YBN
7
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN4 }
radiation. During the Ordovician the
number of genera {JeN-R-u5 } will
quadruple.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/g
enera>.
3. ^ "Ordovician radiation."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/1312376/Ordovician-radiation
>.
4. ^ "Ordovician." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
5. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/g
enera>.
6. ^ "Ordovician radiation."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/1312376/Ordovician-radiation
>.
7. ^ "Ordovician radiation."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/1312376/Ordovician-radiation
>.

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levine, "The Eath
Through Time", 2006, p333
 
[1] Recreation of life during the
Ordovician UNKNOWN
source: http://ferrebeekeeper.files.word
press.com/2010/11/ordovician.jpg


[2] A second peak time in the
abundance of shell-surviving life forms
was in the Upper Ordovician (by this
time also, the first larger
vertebrates, fossil fish, had
appeared). Below are two illustrations:
the first, an artist' conception of
marine invertebrate life in the late
Ordovician; the second, a typical slab
of Ordovician limestone (from Indiana)
containing the fossil types listed in
its caption: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
ordovicsea.jpg

475,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
244) Non-vascular plants evolve,
Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo6 }, (Liverworts,
Hornworts, Mosses).7 8

The Bryophytes are the simplest land
plants, and reproduce with spores.9 10


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^
"Bryophyta." Webster's Revised
Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01
Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/B
ryophyta>.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^
"Bryophyta." Webster's Revised
Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01
Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/B
ryophyta>.
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Peter
Robert Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green
Plants: Their Origin and Diversity",
2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=
HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102

10. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of
Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=
QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211

11. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p82.
12. ^ S26 (c475)
13. ^ S15 (c475)

MORE INFO
[1] "Bryophyte". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryophyte
[2] "Bryophyta." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyta-1

 
[1] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg


[2] English: A closeup shot of moss on
a rock in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria,
Canada. Sony Alpha A100 Date 25
March 2007 Source Own
work Author KirinX at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) CC-BY-SA-2.5. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1c/Moss_closeup.jpg

475,000,000 YBN
11 12
398) Plants live on land. Earliest
fossil spores belonging to land
plants.7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A.
J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10
(4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
2. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian
land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4),
197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
5. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian
land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4),
197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
8. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian
land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4),
197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
11. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

{475 MYBN}
12. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p82.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya10
 

[1] Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A.
J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10
(4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org/
content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-c
fd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_1
98204xx.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://geology.gsapubs.org/conte
nt/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4
eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4


[2] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg

472,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
402) The first animals live on land,
arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p109-110.
3. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
4. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p109-110.
6. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
7. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p109-110.
9. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
10. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

11. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

12. ^ Heather M. Wilson and Lyall I.
Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of
Paleozoic Millipedes (Diplopoda:
Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from
Scotland", Journal of Paleontology,
Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
13. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p67.
earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston,
Ontario, Canada10  

[1] Figure 4. Field photographs of
representative trackways. Scale bars
represent 5 cm. A: Trackway with
central drag and well-defined appendage
marks. Bottom surface. B: Trackway with
central drag and poorly defined
appendage marks. Top surface. Surface
dips to top of photograph; note downdip
offset of central drag. C: Robust
trackway with well-developed appendage
marks and no central drag. Note
push-ups of sand (arrows) associated
with appendage impressions. Figure 4
from: MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391 COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391


[2] Figure 2 from: Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, ''Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland'', Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf} COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094
847?&Search=yes&searchText=MILLIPEDES&se
archText=TAXONOMY&searchText=MORPHOLOGY&
searchText=PALEOZOIC&list=hide&searchUri
=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DMOR
PHOLOGY%2BAND%2BTAXONOMY%2BOF%2BPALEOZOI
C%2BMILLIPEDES%26acc%3Don%26wc%3Don&prev
Search=&item=2&ttl=43&returnArticleServi
ce=showFullText

465,000,000 YBN
3
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays
evolve.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Prothero,
"Evolution. What the Fossils Have to
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p198.
3. ^
Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils
Have to Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p198.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New
Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New
Series, Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19,
1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/165
5241

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41579

[3] "ostracoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01
Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ostracoderm

 
[1] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg


[2] Fossil Ostracoderms.
Representatives of three extinct
groups. The head armor is especially
well developed in Hemicyclaspis, an
ostracoderm of the ''Cephalapsis''
type, in which the head is flattened
and expanded into a large
filter-feeding basket. Ostracoderms
lacked the paired (pectoral and pelvic)
fins of more advanced fish. In some
cases, small spines were present at the
points where paired fins develop in
higher fishes. In Hemicyclaspis, one
sees a pair of anterior, flipper-like
structures in lieu of pectoral fins.
From Romer, A. S. 1964. The Vertebrate
Body. W. B. Saunders.
Philadelphia. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.blc.arizona.edu/cours
es/schaffer/182/Vertebrates/Ostracoderms
.jpg

460,000,000 YBN
9
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve,
Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo4 }.5 This
large group includes all jawed fishes,
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and
birds. First vertebrate teeth.6

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill
skeleton.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ "Gnathostomata."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostoma
ta-1

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ "Gnathostomata."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostoma
ta-1

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p360-363.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p360-363.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363. {460 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p106,110
[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl
Oceans8  
[1] Image from: Palmer, D. The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A
Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500
Species. New Line Books,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, D. The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive
Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002.


[2] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'', Third
Edition, 2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates", Third
Edition, 2002.

460,000,000 YBN
4 5
404) Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes
{KoN-DriK-tE-EZ2 } (Cartilaginous
fishes: ancestor of all sharks, rays,
skates, and sawfishes).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chondr
ichthyes&submit=Submit

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ Miller, Randall
F., Richard Cloutier, and Susan Turner.
“The Oldest Articulated
Chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian
Period.” Nature 425.6957 (2003):
501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html
{M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.


[2] Miller, Randall F., Richard
Cloutier, and Susan Turner. “The
Oldest Articulated Chondrichthyan from
the Early Devonian Period.” Nature
425.6957 (2003): 501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html {M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf} COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html

460,000,000 YBN
3 4
458) Earliest fungi on land. Ancestor
of all terrestrial fungi.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

2. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

3. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

4. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

 
[1] Earliest Glomerales fossil fig 1
from: Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). ''Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician''. Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077
684


[2] Phylogenetic tree from: Richard
Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's Tale'',
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p511. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p511.

460,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15
6414) Fungi "Glomeromycota"
{GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu5 } (Arbuscular
{oRBuSKYUlR6 } mycorrhizal {MIKerIZL7 }
fungi).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomer
omycota&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomer
omycota&submit=Submit

6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=arbusc
ular&submit=Submit

7. ^ "mycorrhiza." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mycorrhiza
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
10. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
11. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

12. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c750mybn)
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1460 to 1210mybn)
15. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(estimate that between 947 and 968)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomer
omycetes&submit=Submit

[2] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of
Fungi", 2008, p142
[3] Redecker, Dirk, and
Philipp Raab. "Phylogeny of the
Glomeromycota (arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Fungi): Recent Developments and New
Gene Markers." Mycologia 98.6
(November): 2006, p885
–895. http://www.mycologia.org/conten
t/98/6/885.abstract

earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA11
 

[1] Gigaspora margarita in association
with Lotus corniculatus Description
Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus
kolonisiert durch Gigaspora
margarita Date 18 September
2007 Source Own work Author
Mike Guether GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Gigaspora_marga
rita.JPG/1024px-Gigaspora_margarita.JPG


[2] germinating Gigaspora decipiens
source: http://pages.unibas.ch/bothebel/
people/redecker/ff/glomero.htm

445,000,000 YBN
3 4
90) Mass extinction caused by ice age.1
2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil
Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol.
344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary
Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/5614
8

2. ^ THE LATE ORDOVICIAN MASS
EXTINCTION - Annual Review of Earth and
Planetary Sciences, 29(1):331 -
Abstract".
Arjournals.annualreviews.org.
2003-11-28.
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/do
i/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.29.1.331?jou
rnalCode=earth

3. ^ Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p83.
4. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil
Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol.
344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary
Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/5614
8
{439 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

[2] David Jablonski, "Lessons from the
Past: Evolutionary Impacts of Mass
Extinctions", Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America, Vol. 98, No.
10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/
3055638

 
[1] NOAA Photo Library Image -
corp1440 Flying over a huge glacier
on the way to McMurdo Station
Image ID: corp1440, NOAA At The Ends of
the Earth Collection Location:
Antarctica Photographer: Mr. Fred
Walton, NOAA Category:
Antarctica/McMurdo/Glacier/ PD
source: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/big
s/corp1440.jpg


[2] Image of object impact with
Earth UNKNOWN
source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-u1aaDd
JP2M0/Tj0QtfwPQQI/AAAAAAAAAbk/3SpkL8NCec
w/s1600/asteroid-impact.jpg

443,700,000 YBN
2
122) End of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7
mybn), and start of the Silurian
(443.7-416) Period.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 450 Ma - Late Ordovician UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/450
_Ord_3globes.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
236) Vascular plants evolve,
Tracheophyta.5 6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
7. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
8. ^ McElwain, Jenny C.; Willis, K. G.;
Willis, Kathy; McElwain, J. C. (2002).
The evolution of plants. Oxford
Oxfordshire. ^: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-850065-3.
9. ^ Palmer et al,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p96.
10. ^ Jeffrey
D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark
W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c400)
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
11. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
 
[1] Description Equisetum telmateia
(Equisetopsida) at Cambridge Botanic
Garden Date 18 May 2008 Source Own
work Author Rror Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
species on earth.jpg GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/7c/Equisetopsida.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
5 6
360) Jawed fishes, bony fishes evolve.
Ray-finned fishes.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ "bony fish."
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthye
s

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN}
6. ^
Palmet et al, "Primitive Life", 2009,
p97.

MORE INFO
[1] "teleost." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/teleost
Ocean and fresh water3 4  
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] A sturgeon
(pt:esturjāo). esturgeon noir
d'Amérique (Acipenser oxyrinchus
oxyrinchus) http://images.fws.gov/ PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c2/Sturgeon2.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
5
6172) The first lung evolves from the
swim bladder in ray-finned fishes.3

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN
(guess based on ray-finned fish
evolving}

MORE INFO
[1] Farmer, C.G. 1999. The
evolution of the vertebrate
cardio-pulmonary system. Annual Review
of Physiology
61:573-592 http://biologylabs.utah.edu/
farmer/publications%20pdf/1999%20AnnuRev
Physiol61.pdf

Ocean (presumably)4  
[1] Image from: Palmer, D. The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A
Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500
Species. New Line Books,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, D. The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive
Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002.


[2] Earliest fish with lung in
existance?[t] Nile Bichir (Polypterus
bichir bichir) from Günther, A.C.L.G.,
1880. An introduction to the study of
fishes. Today & Tomorrow's Book Agency,
New Delhi. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e8/Nile_bichir.png

425,000,000 YBN
3
377) Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes
evolve. Coelacanths.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p335-338.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p335-338.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p335-338.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=89942

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=42376

 
[1] Description Preserved
specimen of chalumnae (Also known as
Coelacanth [1]) in the Natural History
Museum, Vienna, Austria. Believed
to have been extinct for 70 million
years, this specimen was caught the 18
October of 1974, next to
Salimani/Selimani (Grande Comore,
Comoros Islands) 11°48′40.7″S
43°16′3.3″E Length: 170 cm -
Weight: 60 kg Obtained by stiching
3 HiRes images and removing the
background with image
post-processing. Date August
2007 Source Own work Author
Alberto Fernandez Fernandez GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/fa/Latimeria_Chalumnae_-
_Coelacanth_-_NHMW.jpg

420,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9
6350) Arthropods Hexapods (arthropods
with six legs {3 pairs}, includes all
insects).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter, "Insect
Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=
LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781

2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Timothy Duane
Schowalter, "Insect Ecology: An
Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=
LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781

4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005,
p66,116.
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005,
p66,116.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
9. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395


MORE INFO
[1] Blaxter, Mark.
“Evolutionary Biology: Sum of the
Arthropod Parts.” Nature 413.6852
(2001):
121–122. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v413/n6852/full/413121a0.html

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert)
Scotland5  

[1] Description Protura specimen,
taken under stereo microscope (40x).
Acerentomon sp. Date 7 December 2008,
03:13 Source Protura Uploaded
by Richard001 Author Gregor
?nidar CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bc/Protura_specimen_(Ace
rentomon_species)_micrograph.jpg


[2] Description English: Campodea
staphylinus, a dipluran. Photo by
Michel Vuijlsteke. Taken on May 9, 2006
at 4.09pm CEST in Gent, Belgium. Date
2007-07-08 (original upload
date) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia Author Original uploader
was Mvuijlst at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2e/Diplura.jpg

417,000,000 YBN
2 3
378) Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes.1
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm


MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=42316&tree=0.1

 
[1] Description English: Australian
lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) Date
Source Picure taken by Tannin
(from English wikipedia) Author
User:Tannin GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/61/Australian-Lungfish.j
pg


[2] Description English: Lateral
view of lungs of a dissected
Protopterus dolloi Date
2007ish (15 February 2009
(original upload date)) Source
Transferred from
en.wikipedia (Original text : Photo
from lab dissection at U. of
Cincinnati) Author Mokele (talk).
Original uploader was Mokele at
en.wikipedia GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/ae/Lungs_of_Protopterus_
dolloi.JPG

416,000,000 YBN
3
123) End of the Silurian (443.7-416
mybn), and start of the Devonian
{DiVONEiN1 } (416-359.2 mybn) Period.2


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Devonian." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/devonian
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic
Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059
/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 430 Ma - Early Silurian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/430
_Silurian_2globes.jpg

416,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
6352) Hexapods: insects.4 5
Bristletail and Silverfish.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
2. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
5. ^
Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
8. ^
Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

9. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p250-254.
10. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005,
p1. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql
6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA1

 
[1] Description Français : Groupe
de Petrobius maritimus sur falaise
supralittorale, Toull ar C'Hrabanoù,
Goulien, Finistère, Bretagne,
France Date 2 June 2010 Source Own
work Author Jymm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a4/Petrobius_maritimus_2
010-06-02.jpg


[2] Description Archaeognatha:
Machilidae, collected from Anglesey,
UK Date 2006-12-28 Source Own work
(own photo) Author
User:Stemonitis Permission (Reusing
this file) CC Attribution
ShareAlike 2.5 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/Archaeognatha.jpg

400,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16
227) Fungi "Ascomycota"
{aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu6 } (ancestor of yeasts,
truffles, Penicillium, and morels {mu
reLZ7 }).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomy
cota&submit=Submit

2. ^ "morel." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomy
cota&submit=Submit

7. ^ "morel." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
10. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
11. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp,
"The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com
/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

12. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp,
"The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com
/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

13. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1009my)
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1140my)
16. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of
Fungi", 2008, p142
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert)
Aberdeenshire, Scotland11  

[1] white truffle
cutted photographed by
myself GNU head Permission is
granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version
published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections,
no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is
included in the section entitled ''Text
of the GNU Free Documentation
License.''
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/fd/Truffle_washed_and_cu
tted.jpg


[2] EColi-Scerevisiae.jpg (50KB, MIME
type: image/jpeg) Wikimedia Commons
logo This is a file from the Wikimedia
Commons. The description on its
description page there is shown
below. Escherichia coli (little
forms) & Saccharomyces cerevisiae (big
forms) by MEB Public domain This file
has been released into the public
domain by the copyright holder, its
copyright has expired, or it is
ineligible for copyright. This applies
worldwide. brewer's yeast/baker's
yeast
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:EColi-Scerevisiae.jpg

400,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve (club
mosses, ferns and horsetails).2

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas
E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
3. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p110.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview
and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). (c390 (360 for living species)
5. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
6. ^
Taylor, Thomas N.; Edith L. Taylor.
(1993). The Biology and Evolution of
Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall. pp. 332–334. ISBN
0-13-651589-4.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
(318mybn)
[2] Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah
D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(350mybn)
 
[1] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

392,000,000 YBN
4 5
359) Cartilaginous fishes: "Selachii"
{SelAKEE1 or I2 } evolve, (ancestor of
all sharks: includes great white,
hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse
sharks).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selach
ii&submit=Submit

2. ^ "Selachii." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 26 Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/selachii-2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, D.R., and C.D.
Buell. Evolution: What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters. Columbia University
Press, 2007, p198.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {190 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selach
imorpha&submit=Submit

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p361. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p361.


[2] Grey reef shark (Carcharhinus
amblyrhynchos) Description Un
gran tiburón surcando aguas
oceánicas. Date 14 March
2004 Source Original image:
Carcharhinus-amblyrynchos.jpg by
Fbattail at fr.wikipedia, March 14,
2004 cropped image:
Greyreefsharksmall.jpg by Chris huh at
en.wikipedia, August 29. 2006
Transfered to Commons by Harryemi,
September 21, 2008 Author
original author is Fbattail , the
image is cropped by Chris huh GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bb/Tibur%C3%B3n.jpg

385,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
405) The first forests. Earliest large
tree fossils.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

2. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

3. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

4. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

5. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

6. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

7. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

8. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

{385 mybn}
9. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive
Life", 2009, p111.
10. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{380mybn}
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York,
USA7  

[1] a, General view of the crown
portion, showing longitudinal ranks of
branch bases on the trunk proximally,
and attached branches with digitate
ramification and speckled surface
pattern distally. Scale bar, 20 cm. b,
Line drawing of the specimen as
recovered including trunk and crown;
the box shows the portion in a, and the
arrow indicates the branch in c. Scale
bar, 10 cm. c, Close-up of a distal
branch showing speckled texture and
lateral appendages. Scale bar, 20
mm. figure 1 from: William E. Stein1,
Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller
Hernick2, Ed Landing2 & Christopher M.
Berry3, ''Giant cladoxylopsid trees
resolve the enigma of the Earth's
earliest forest stumps at Gilboa'',
Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v446/n7138/images/nature05705-f1.2.
jpg


[2] a, Composite image of large trunk
specimen, a cast with upper and lower
counterparts, NYSM 17040. Arrows at the
distal end (top) correspond to the
region in Fig. 3a; arrows at the
proximal end (bottom) correspond to the
region in Fig. 3b. b, Line drawing
showing the architecture of Wattieza
attached to Eospermatopteris. The
length of the trunk is not firmly
established, so the minimum tree height
is shown. Light branches right, also in
Fig. 1a right, appear in life position
but are not definitively attached.
Scale bar, 1 m for both panels. figure
2 from: William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
''Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa'', Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v446/n7138/images/nature05705-f2.2.
jpg

385,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
411) The first flying animal, an
arthropod insect. Ancestor of all
winged insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu8 })
(Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).9
10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157

2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pteryg
ota&submit=Submit

5. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157

6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pteryg
ota&submit=Submit

9. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157

10. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
11. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

12. ^ Knecht, R. J., Engel, M. S., &
Benner, J. S. (2011). Late
carboniferous paleoichnology reveals
the oldest full-body impression of a
flying insect. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences , 108
(16),
6515-6519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pn
as.1015948108

13. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005)
Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota
in the Lower Carboniferous of the
Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech
Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

14. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of
the Insects", 2005, p146
15. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution
of the Insects", 2005,
p163. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA163

16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p142.
17. ^ Prokop J, Nel A,
Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest
known Pterygota in the
Lower Carboniferous of the Upper
Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic
(Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
18. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{315 MYBN}
19. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

20. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p142.

MORE INFO
[1] Engel MS, Grimaldi DA (2004)
New light shed on the oldest insect.
Nature 427: 627–630
[2] Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005)
Evolution of the Insects (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge)
[3] Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous
of the Upper Silesian Basin in the
Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archoaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

[4] "Orthoptera." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/orthoptera-
1

[5] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p159. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA159

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation)
southeastern Massachusetts12 and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic13  

[1] English: A female subimago of March
Brown (Rhithrogena germanica) of family
Heptageniidae. Mayflies are insects
which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera
(from the Greek ephemeros, short-lived
and pteron, wing, referring to the
short life span of adults). They have
been placed into an ancient group of
insects termed the Paleoptera, which
also contains the dragonflies and
damselflies. They are aquatic insects
whose immature stage (called naiad or,
colloquially, nymph) usually lasts one
year in fresh water. The rests on Rough
Horsetail or Scouringrush Horsetail
(Equisetum hyemale) Date 8 January
2008 Source Own work Author Richard
Bartz, Munich aka Makro Freak
Image:MFB.jpg CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Rhithrogena_germanica
_subimago_on_Equisetum_hyemale.jpg


[2] FIGURE 2—Preliminary hypothesis
of phylogenetic relationships among
major and interesting groups of living
and extinct hexapods and
basal pterygote Insecta. Numbers refer
to synapomorphies (see Table 1); empty
boxes are homoplasious synapomorphies.
Some significant fossils
are-CSCO-3h--F3.large denoted by
circled letters (see Table 2), but many
fossils are not listed for most groups.
Thick lines indicate the approximate
chronology of lineages. The number of
lineages depicted for paraphyletic
lineages
(‘‘Protodonata,’’‘‘Protortho
ptera,’’ Blattaria [Blattoptera])
are arbitrary, and simply indicate
multiple, unresolved lineages. The
names of orders with freshwater aquatic
larvae are shaded (a presumed ancestral
habit). Relationships are based on
Kristensen (1975, 1991, 1999), Willmann
(1997, 1999), Grimaldi (1997, for
Dictyoptera), Engel and Grimaldi (2000,
Zoraptera and related orders), and
others. Figure 2 from: Grimaldi, D.
2001. Insect evolutionary history from
Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond.
Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf COPYRIGHTED
source: www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2
000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_hist
ory.pdf

375,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
380) The first tetrapods (organisms
with four feet), the amphibians, evolve
in fresh water.5 The first vertebrate
limbs (arms and legs) and fingers.6
Ancestor of caecillians, frogs, toads,
and salamanders.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p302-329.
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
origin and evolution of model
organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
{Hedges_2002.p
df} {375(360+-15) mybn}
10. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p302-329. {340 mybn}
11. ^ P. E.
Ahlberg, "Tetrapod or near-tetrapod
fossils from the Upper Devonian of
Scotland", Nature 354, 298 - 301 (28
November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html
{368
mybn (fossil}
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates
/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
{368 mybn
(fossil}
13. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles
/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
Fresh water, Greenland (on the
equator)8  

[1] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg


[2] Reconstructions of (a)
Acanthostega and (b) Ichthyostega, from
Benton, 1997. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Pal
aeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/amphibpic
s/ichthyostega.jpg

367,000,000 YBN
2 3
408) Mass extinction caused by ice
age.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

2. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil
Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol.
344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary
Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/5614
8
{367 mybn}
3. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{360 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] David Jablonski, "Lessons
from the Past: Evolutionary Impacts of
Mass Extinctions", Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America, Vol. 98, No.
10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/
3055638

 
[1] Description English: Antarctica:
The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in
the Transantarctic Mountains, comes
from glacial meltwater from the Canada
Glacier and other smaller glaciers. The
freshwater stays on top of the lake and
freezes, sealing in briny water
below. http://photolibrary.usap.gov/Por
tscripts/PortWeb.dll?query&field1=Filena
me&op1=matches&value=LakeFryxell.jpg&cat
alog=Antarctica&template=ShowMidThumbs
Français : Antarctique: La glace bleue
couvrant le Lac Fryxell, dans la
Chaîne Transantarctique, vient des
eaux de fonte du Glacier Canada et
d'autres glaciers plus petits. L'eau
fraîche se trouve au sommet du lac et
gèle, scellant une eau saumâtre
située en-dessous. Date 10 December
2002 Source From Antarctic Photo
Library: LAKEFRYXELL.JPG Author Joe
Mastroianni, National Science
Foundation PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Fryxellsee_Opt.
jpg/1280px-Fryxellsee_Opt.jpg


[2] Description Deutsch: Der Vulkan
Mount Erebus, Antarktika. English:
Mount Erebus, Ross Island,
Antarctica. Español: Monte Erebus,
Isla Ross,Antártida Français : Le
mont Erebus, île de Ross,
Antarctique. Türkçe: Erebus Dağı,
Antarktika Русский:
Вулкан Эребус,
Антарктида Date
1972 Source U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) Author Richard Waitt, U.S.
Geological Survey Permission (Reusing
this file) PD-US Other versions
Image:Mt Erebus (original).jpg PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/4e/Mt_erebus.jpg

363,000,000 YBN
5 6
379) The first vertebrates live on land
(an amphibian).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
5. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles
/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{363mybn}
6. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates
/tetrapods/tetrafr.html
{360mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod or
near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper
Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298
- 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html

[2]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates
/tetrapods/amphibfr.html

Fresh water, Greenland (on the
equator)4  

[1] Yes, it's time for the Palaeozoic
scenes of Life before Man. Or some of
them, anyway - if you really want to
see a load of trilobites, you're
probably Richard Fortey, and I will
ignore any comments that claim
otherwise. (Also, I can't include
everything - otherwise we'd have to
rename this blog Love in the Time of
Burian, which sounds a bit rubbish.) My
bias is most definitely towards
vertebrates and, in particular,
tetrapods, and the below scene -
featuring Ichthyostega - marks their
first appearance in the book. This
painting is perhaps unique in this book
as it combines the elements of the
animal-free landscapes with, well, some
animals. Burian's skill is in making
this scene, filled as it is with flora
so utterly different to what we are
accustomed to seeing today, look as if
he just took a casual stroll out into
the country to paint it. UNKNOWN
source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Zdvegv
1Fny4/UCk-Z929irI/AAAAAAAABM8/_7c21BO7T1
s/s1600/Ichthyostega.jpg


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg

360,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota"
{Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu5 } (ancestor of many
mushrooms: button, chanterelle
{saNTRreL6 }, cremini{KremENE7 }, enoki
{inoKE8 }, fly agaric {uGaRiK9 },
oyster, porcino {PORCEnO 10 },
portabella, psilocybe, puffball,
shiitake {sEToKE11 }, woodear, rusts,
and club fungi).12 13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidi
omycota&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidi
omycota&submit=Submit

6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chante
relle&submit=Submit

7. ^ "cremini." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jan.
2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cremini
8. ^ "enoki?s=t". Dictionary.com
Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/e
noki?s=t

9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=agaric
&submit=Submit

10. ^ "porcino." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04
Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/porcino
11. ^ "shiitake." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04
Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/shiitake
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
15. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck
CB (1985) Studies of Paleozoic fungi.
V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon
newberryi from the Upper Devonian. Am
J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.k
u.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%
20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734

16. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck
CB (1985) Studies of Paleozoic fungi.
V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon
newberryi from the Upper Devonian. Am
J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.k
u.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%
20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734

17. ^ Michael Krings, Nora Dotzler,
Jean Galtier and Thomas N. Taylor,
"Oldest fossil basidiomycete clamp
connections", Mycoscience, Volume 52,
Number 1 (2011), 18-23, DOI:
10.1007/s10267-010-0065-4 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/725614321xj0604w/

18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(968my)
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1210my)
20. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (700my)